The package consists of a loan of EUR 35 million and a grant of EUR 30 million from the EIB and the European Union, as well as a contribution of EUR 6.5 million from the Government of Madagascar, for the JIRAMA III Water Project.
The investment will enable JIRAMA to improve the drinking water supply system in the capital, Antananarivo, through investments in both water production and water distribution.
WSUP is also contributing to the JIRAMA III Water Project through an investment of EUR 2.5 million with the support of partners such as the Coca-Cola Foundation, USAID, DfID and Cartier Philanthropy.
WSUP has supported JIRAMA for over ten years to enable it to improve the performance of its water services, increase water capacity and extend water supply to unserved areas in the city and its peri urban communities. As a result of the support, JIRAMA has been able to extend community water facilities as well as tackle leaks, theft and poor billing (collectively known as non-revenue water).
In addition, WSUP provided input to the JIRAMA III Water Project at key stages of the project preparation, including strengthening JIRAMA’s non-revenue water and leakage management programme and providing technical assistance in preparing the establishment of JIRAMA’s Project Management Unit.
“For the last 10 years, we have been committed to helping JIRAMA deliver improved water and sanitation services to the poorest urban residents,” said Sylvie Ramanantsoa, Madagascar Country Programme Manager.
“We’re so pleased now that JIRAMA has been able to secure new funding from the European Union, European Investment Bank and the Government which will play a major role in helping JIRAMA scale up its water services for the benefit of the most vulnerable.”
“The Bank of the European Union is pleased to be able to support Madagascar in the financing of many development projects crucial for the country, and wishes to become more involved, always alongside its partners, in infrastructure projects (roads, hydroelectric or energy) with a significant level of fight against climate change, in particular in terms of adaptation,” said EIB Vice-President Ambroise Fayolle in its press release.
For the first time in the history of refugee camps there has been a concerted effort across multiple agencies to ensure proper treatment and disposal of faecal waste. Prior to 2017, there has been single unit, single technology attempts to deal with the human waste in refugee camps. This was seen in the Philippines during the cyclone Haiyan Response, and in Myanmar, Iraq and for the Syrian refugees in Jordan. However, since the Rohingya crisis in 2017, where approximately 800,000 fled from Myanmar into camps around Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh, there are now at least eight different types of faecal sludge treatment technologies being used in over twenty sites. These figures are unprecedented.
Enlisting the support of ARUP, Oxfam saw this as an opportunity to compare the different types of faecal sludge technologies. The aim of the comparison study was to give agencies the tools to quickly decide the most appropriate technology in context and in relation to large scale emergencies.
A range of criteria was used to compare FSM technologies such as start-up costs verses operation and maintenance costs; land requirement; technical requirements and resilience to disasters. The results show that the easiest option in terms of technical expertise, set up time and cost is Lime Treatment. However, for the long term it is not considered the best option due to the large amount of management involved. A long term, cheaper option where space is limited, is the Up-Flow filter. Where space is not an issue, anaerobic lagoons are a viable option. While there are clear indications about which technology is most suited to which environments, there is no one size fits all. Making the best decision would rely on those who understand the complexities of faecal sludge management to make the most appropriate decision based on the comparison study. Another relevant document when considering the most appropriate faecal sludge management system is The German toilet organisation’s Compendium of Sanitation Technologies in Emergencies.
This comparison study is the first step along the way to having predictable faecal sludge treatment in every future emergency. It is only a snap shot of the technologies used at the time of the study, when many other technologies were only just beginning to be used. Therefore, we plan to conduct another faecal sludge comparison in 2020 when the technologies have been running for more than a year. This will more accurately determine the pros and cons of each unit. In addition, the Global WASH Cluster has set up a Technical Working group, led by Oxfam and Solidarite, with support from the Dutch Government and the Netherlands Red Cross. The group has identified gaps in knowledge and practice such as the lack of simple technical guidelines for the different technologies, a decision tree for technology selection and the need for a dedicated FSM Coordinator to go out to the next large emergency.
We are clear that we do not want this Cox’s Bazar response to be a one off extra-ordinary response in faecal sludge treatment but the start of an approach that will be rolled out in all future emergencies. Thereby, ensuring the safety of people and the environment from disease and contamination.
Read the full report: Faecal Sludge Management for Disaster Relief: Technology Comparison Study
Andy took over the leadership of Oxfam GB's Public Health Engineering team in 2002, which became part of the Oxfam Global Humanitarian Team in 2016.
“Corruption violates the core human rights principles of transparency, accountability, non-discrimination, and meaningful participation in every aspect of the community. Conversely, these principles, when upheld and implemented, are the most effective means to fight corruption.”
-Navi Pillay, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, in 2013
Efforts to combat corruption and realize human rights are always mutually reinforcing: both are necessary. This means that this year’s 10th anniversary of the General Assembly resolution 64/292, recognizing human rights to water and sanitation is also a milestone in promoting integrity for the sector.
The UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation, Mr Leo Heller, has launched a campaign to celebrate the anniversary. He is making his most important reports accessible and different resources available, focusing on a specific theme each month. His first post is a straightforward reminder on monitoring and assessments of the water sector with a human rights lens, to be paired with a report on different types of water supply service.
It’s interesting to think about what this might mean for stakeholders who are not the usual suspects. There is value to combining the corruption and human rights frameworks for action, also for companies and service providers. On this, this post over on the FCPA blog makes the case for how anti-corruption and human rights efforts will converge in 2020.
This year’s focus will also be on climate change for many stakeholders. Taking a human rights lens to this issue is crucial to better target climate adaptation efforts. Taking an integrity lens is also key as corruption is both a driver and form of human rights violations. IUCN published an important report that brings this to the fore very clearly with a focus on gender and gender-based violence in relation to climate change and environmental degradation. The report shows how the climate crisis is leading to increased violence against women and has a specific section on sextortion only for land, although conclusions have broad implications.
This overview by U4 of challenges and achievements of different network organizations operating in the anti-corruption space provides insight on lesser known anti-corruption actors and the value and challenges of working as a network. Food for thought for all anti-corruption practitioners and networks in particular!
In a post on IRCWASH, Regina Rossmann of GIZ, discusses utility debt and the under-the-radar issue of government not paying their own utility bills. This issue of unpaid bills shows accountability is a two-way street. When a utility is starved of resources it cannot improve services for its customers and deliver on its promises. When we push utilities to be more accountable towards their users and government, we must also hold government accountable to support utilities, and perhaps start by just paying their own water bills?
Please don’t hesitate to share your views in the comments or get in touch to share information and material for the next round-up. Thank you!
The links here go to original material on external websites. WIN is not responsible for the accuracy of external content.
Hanan Ahyad is a resident of Jordan’s capital and largest city Amman. She is a domestic customer of the local water utility company, Miyahuna, and has always been aware of her country’s limited water resources. However, she did not understand the extent of the water crisis and how she could help until she came across a mysterious and innovative water conservation campaign in the summer of 2019. The campaign went viral in a matter of days, eventually reaching 3.5 million Jordanians (approximately one-third of the population), garnering nearly 60 million social media impressions, and extending far beyond Jordan’s borders. “In my neighborhood, we receive water once a week,” Ahyad explained. “My previous perception was that water resources in Jordan were little, but it never appeared to me that we are in the middle of a critical and worrying situation.”
Jordan is among the most water scarce countries on Earth. The recent influx of refugees and changing weather patterns are adding strain to the already shrinking water supply. The USAID Water Management Initiative is supporting the Government of Jordan to address the Kingdom’s most pressing water challenges and avoid a looming crisis by developing critical capacity and improving sector performance. Behavior change and strategic communications are a pivotal component of efforts to foster sustainable change.
Ahyad was not alone in her perceptions. In 2018, the Water Management Initiative conducted a comprehensive survey of Jordanians’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding water. The study found that while most residents were aware of the Kingdom’s water challenges, 40 percent did not believe that their country was facing a crisis.
The initiative’s social marketing and behavior change experts understood that residents needed awareness as well as tools and incentives to adopt and sustain water conservation behaviors. With this in mind and survey results in hand, the Water Management Initiative and Miyahuna set about devising a summer water conservation campaign based on a state-of-the-art social marketing model to increase knowledge of the looming water crisis and encourage residents to take practical action to conserve water.
“A successful, large-scale water conservation campaign requires broad public understanding, buy-in, and action,” said Michael Jones, director of the Water Resources and Environment Office at USAID/Jordan. “Miyahuna identified water-saving behaviors that we need customers to adopt. We aligned those behaviors with the findings of the study to create the framework for the water conservation campaign.”
The Water Management Initiative and Miyahuna developed core messaging and detailed plans for a multistage campaign. They enlisted the marketing firm, Ogilvy, to produce creative final designs and leverage its extensive networks in the private sector and with online influencers. The campaign design included three phases: an initial “Teaser” phase, a “Reveal and Information” phase, and a “Call to Action” phase.
The first phase needed a creative angle to create awareness of the campaign and break through the clutter of advertising in Amman. “We took our brief to the advertising giant, Ogilvy, to create a campaign that would stand out and attract the attention of citizens who are flooded daily with countless messages,” Jones added. Ogilvy digested the campaign brief and translated it into what would become one of the most successful media campaigns in Jordan’s history.
The campaign’s simple slogan, “Don’t underestimate the value of a drop, ” employed a play on words in Arabic where the word “drop” is the same as the word for the Arabic diacritic marks (dots) used with certain Arabic letters. By omitting diacritic marks from the campaign’s Arabic slogan, it rendered the phrase challenging to read and interpret, which clearly illustrated “the value of a drop.”
On July 28, 2019, this simple, cryptic slogan without “drops” was posted on billboards throughout Amman and social media without any explanation of its meaning or the source. This generated extensive buzz throughout Jordan and beyond, as people tried to decipher its meaning and who was behind it. The campaign’s intriguing twist resonated broadly, and the campaign hashtag #لا_تستهين_بالنقطة was soon trending on social media. It was featured on local television programs and other local, regional, and international media. In addition, more than 800 organizations, including Royal Jordanian Airlines, Arab Bank, Orange, McDonald’s, Ford, and the Crown Prince Foundation, showed their support for water conservation by dropping the Arabic diacritic marks (the “dots”) from their names and slogans and sharing the campaign hashtag.
After allowing the teaser message to be absorbed and discussed for three days, the campaign moved to the Reveal and Information phase. Adding the diacritic marks to the teaser message made the slogan readable, and the message also revealed who was behind it (Miyahuna, the City of Amman, and USAID). New billboards included the diacritic marks, and posts online showed animated water drops falling onto the page. The revised messages also directed people to Miyahuna’s website, which had been transformed for the campaign to specifically target knowledge gaps and misperceptions identified in the survey. For example, while recent rainfall has helped refill reservoirs, the underground water upon which Jordan heavily depends is continuing to be depleted.
Finally, on August 18, the campaign transitioned to the Call for Action phase. This phase provided information on practical actions people can take to conserve water, including linking to a new USAID–supported program to incentivize households to retrofit water fixtures and roof tanks with water-saving devices. It also included information on how homeowners can report water leakage and inspect their roof tank valves to ensure they are not a source of water losses.
Upon the campaign’s completion, the Water Management Initiative conducted a survey to measure the campaign’s effectiveness in raising awareness and promoting action. It found that people’s knowledge of Jordan’s water crisis increased to 79 percent compared to 60 percent reported in the initial survey. The survey also indicated that 24 percent of the targeted population checked their roof tank valves in the first three days of the campaign. The water company’s customer service number, which was promoted during the campaign, received nearly 190,000 additional calls in August and September of 2019 compared to the same period in 2018, representing an increase of more than 70 percent.
“The campaign was overwhelmingly successful in highlighting the significance of preserving water resources in Jordan. We are aiming to create awareness and encourage citizens to conserve water through adopting simple behaviors,” said Orwa Al Falayleh, Communications and Water Awareness Unit head at Miyahuna Company.
The USAID Water Management Initiative is now implementing its plan to ensure that water conservation practices continue to expand and are sustainable. The project is supporting Miyahuna to launch an incentive-based program called Maana, meaning “with us,” immediately on the heels of the summer conservation campaign. The program leverages the Water Management Initiative’s outreach and study findings — notably the fact that people are more likely to carry out new water-saving behaviors when they are relatively inexpensive, easy to perform, and result in a tangible benefit. Maana incorporates these considerations to deliver an innovative experience to Miyahuna’s customers. This voluntary program allows participants to obtain low-cost, water-saving retrofit technologies and access free support services including water audits and roof tank cleaning.
“The campaign was powerful in communicating critical facts about the water shortage in addition to encouraging us to adopt simple, yet valuable, behaviors to preserve water. We are now more than ever conscientious with our water usage.”
Maana will use recently trained female plumbers to carry out home visits for water conservation support services. The choice of female plumbers is helping women to earn additional income while overcoming cultural challenges — female plumbers are permitted to enter homes without a male present.
Hanan Ahyad, like thousands of other Miyahuna customers, now has a clear understanding of the urgency of Jordan’s water situation. She concluded, “Today, my family and I have fully realized the stressful dilemma Jordan is facing. The campaign was powerful in communicating critical facts about the water shortage in addition to encouraging us to adopt simple, yet valuable, behaviors to preserve water. We are now more than ever conscientious with our water usage. Drop over drop, we believe that we can positively contribute to preserving water in the country.”
By David Favazza
This article appears in Global Waters, Vol. 11, Issue 1; for past issues of the magazine, visit Global Waters’ homepage on Globalwaters.org.
Gone Viral: Raising Awareness of Jordan’s Water Crisis was originally published in Global Waters on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.
Pop-up infrastructure: Water ATMs and new delivery networks in India. Water Alternatives, 2020.
The article develops a novel approach to water ATMs as ‘pop-up infrastructure’ in which the movement of matter is operationally independent from, and only contingently reliant on, existing water delivery networks.
Reflecting SDG 6.1 in Rural Water Supply Tariffs: Considering ‘Affordability’ Versus ‘Operations and Maintenance Costs’ in Malawi. Sustainability, January 2020.
Local tariffs in the form of household contributions are the primary financial mechanism to fund the maintenance of rural water supplies in Malawi. An investigation was conducted into the tariffs set by rural service providers to sustain drilled boreholes equipped with Afridev handpumps.
Stool-Based Pathogen Detection Offers Advantages as an Outcome Measure for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Trials. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 5 Feb 2020.
Stool-based enteric pathogen detection offers several advantages over the conventional WASH trial outcome of caregiver-reported diarrhea.
Menstrual health intervention and school attendance in Uganda (MENISCUS-2): a pilot intervention study. BMJ Open 2020.
The intervention comprised training teachers to improve delivery of government guidelines for puberty education, training in use of a menstrual kit and pain management, a drama skit, provision of analgesics and improvements to school water and sanitation hygiene facilities.
The value of monitoring data in a process evaluation of hygiene behaviour change in Community Health Clubs to explain findings from a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Rwanda. BMC Public Health, January 2020. A cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial evaluation of the impact of the Community Health Clubs (CHCs) in the Community Based Environmental Health Promotion Programme in Rwanda in 2015 appeared to find little uptake of 7 hygiene indicators 1 year after the end of the intervention, and low impact on prevention of diarrhoea and stunting.
Planning and communicating prototype tests for the Nano Membrane Toilet: A critical review and proposed visual tool. Gates Open Research, November 2019. A visual test planning tool is proposed that encompasses the entire product development process and can be used to plan and communicate prototype tests for the Nano Membrane Toilet to ultimately achieve compliance with international standards
An evaluation of the sanitation business of the Handpump Mechanics Association KAHASA in Kabarole District has learned that the business model needs upgrading to make it commercially viable.
We supported investigative journalists Datadista in 2019 to take a deep dive in the circumstances leading to increasing pollution in the waters of the protected Mar Menor lagoon in southern Spain. What they found is a chilling call to action.
It starts with grand plans and ends with three tonnes of fish dying on the shore. There are suitcases full of money and secret underground pumps. But the most striking piece of the story is thirty years of laissez-faire by authorities, despite foreseeable and dramatic consequences.
In December, the Global Investigative Journalism Network picked this story as one of its top picks in Spanish for 2019. The whole investigation has just been translated into English.
The original investigation published in Spanish: https://datadista.com/medioambiente/desastre-mar-menor/
The English version: https://datadista.com/medioambiente/desastre-mar-menor/eng/
Rotary Club Apeldoorn-‘t Loo has been a long time supporter of the SMART Centre in Malawi through the ‘Walking for Water’ fundraising activities. Recently the Rotary Magazine published a short article on this long term partnership, underlining the need for local production through local businesses.
The full article can be accessed through the website of Rotary Netherlands
Read more to access the article.
The Jacana SMART Centre in Chipata is developing and expanding. Jacana has now developed plans to build its own ‘Jacana Business Centre’ with the aim of creating opportunities for small scale entrepreneurs, so that they can grow economically and create better living conditions for themselves and their communities.
Jacana is currently fundraising and you are invited to participate in this exiting development. The raised funds will be doubled by Wilde Ganzen.
More information can be found on the website of Jacana, https://jacana.help/donate/
Moses Banda, who is trained as a driller by the Jacana SMART Centre in Chipata, Zambia, has invented a ‘Super Slim Solar pump’ on the basis of a fuel pump. All parts are worldwide available in common hardware shops and shops that sell car parts. Cost about $100 including solar panel.
The pump is ideal for very narrow tube wells, starting at 2″ (50mm) casing and bigger. Suitable for wells that produce very little water because it pumps slowly but steady. After 5½ hours an overhead tank of 1000 liter is full.
Moses Banda is trained and guided by Jacana SMART Centre Zambia.
Read more to access the video.
At WIN, we support partners and water sector stakeholders to better assess integrity risks and develop action plans to address them. Integrity tools have been developed and tested to support these processes. These tools are in constant evolution as we test and use them in different contexts and with different stakeholders.
For example, in 2020, we are working on new methodologies to assess integrity risks in utilities with concrete and actionable indicators. We’re also piloting an index to compare integrity risks in water and sanitation at city level, using surveys and big data.
We’re building toolboxes for organizations to develop action plans to prevent corruption in water and improve accountability lines between stakeholders. This year in particular, this work is focused on improving the tools at hand for utilities, regulators, rural water committees, and public institutions in the water sector.
These WIN tools represent a small fraction of tools and techniques organizations recommend to prevent and reduce corruption in any sector. How do we make sense of it all? And how do we ensure we are working with and promoting the most effective measures? How do we continue improving tools and what are the minimal conditions for using them?
We’re eager to discuss the way forward with partners and are setting up a loose Community of Practice to pursue the conversation.
Some of the key questions we are asking ourselves include:
The post Tools to assess integrity and prevent corruption in water: working groups appeared first on WIN - Water Integrity Network.
The Water Integrity Global Outlook 2016 (WIGO 2016) demonstrated a growing recognition of the need for measures to improve integrity and to eliminate corruption to enhance performance in the water and sanitation sector. It emphasized the use of transparency, accountability, participation, and anti-corruption measures (TAPA) to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 on water and sanitation. WIGO 2016 also demonstrated the need for stronger data and evidence on the extent and impacts of corruption in the sector to guide the development and implementation of pro-integrity/anti-corruption programs.
WIN aims to establish the WIGO as a regular publication, which will become a medium for collecting and sharing evidence, knowledge, experiences, ideas, policy options, and good practices on improving integrity in the water sector. Each upcoming volume of the WIGO will unpack the concept of water integrity within the context of new selected theme. The next WIGO, focusing on integrity in urban water and sanitation, will be published in 2021.
We are inviting all interested water sector stakeholders (international organizations, government and regulatory agencies, academic and research institutes, service providers, civil society organizations, associations, and others) to contribute to the upcoming publication.
We are looking to collaborate on new research, case studies, and data collection initiatives on corruption and integrity in urban water and sanitation.
Please send your suggestions or queries to Umrbek Allakulov, WIN Research and Evidence Coordinator, via our contact form.
We look forward to discussing opportunities!
Download publication concept note and call for contributions:
The post Research: Integrity and corruption in urban water and sanitation appeared first on WIN - Water Integrity Network.
Featuring a presentation from the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation, this webinar aims to:
• exchange experience with and among regulatory actors and practitioners, in particular highlighting barriers and opportunities and share good practices and practical approaches to promoting and implementing the human rights to water and sanitation
• discuss the way forward for the next decade on the realization of the human rights to water and sanitation
• provide input/suggestions for the mandate of the Special Rapporteur
By Sam Drabble, Head of Research & Learning at Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) In the context of the global push to meet the SDGs, sanitation continues to lag dramatically behind. The challenge goes far beyond a lack of, or unsuitable, infrastructure: underlying systemic issues hold the sector back and block millions…