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Yesterday — 2 August 2021Main stream

New World Bank response to flood and drought risk management

2 August 2021 at 10:12

Over the last two decades, at least 1.65 billion people have been affected by floods and 1.43 billion by droughts. The economic and social costs have been enormous. A new … Read more

The post New World Bank response to flood and drought risk management appeared first on UN-Water.

Before yesterdayMain stream

WIN partner meeting 2021

The partner meeting was an opportunity for WIN partners to come together to look beyond 2021. Around 60 participants joined us. We shared the results of the WIN partner survey, a preview of the soon-to-be-launched Water Integrity Global Outlook 2021, and new ideas on the future funding landscape for integrity in the water and sanitation sectors within the context of COVID-19.

Here are the full notes:

The post WIN partner meeting 2021 appeared first on WIN - Water Integrity Network.

Strengthening Urban Sanitation Regulation to Expand and Sustain Services

A new research report examines urban sanitation in Lusaka, Zambia, with a focus on integrity, corruption risks and the capacity, strengths and weakness of the regulatory framework to deal with these risks. It bridges a critical gap in research on integrity in sanitation governance, highlighting new ways to strengthen the regulatory framework and ensure effectiveness of WASH systems.


Infrastructure construction alone will not solve the challenges of extending and sustaining water and sanitation services in cities with growing populations facing the threat of climate change. Strong WASH systems are critical to ensure the effective and sustained delivery of urban sanitation services. That is, the effective delivery of urban sanitation services depends on the proper functioning of various actors (i.e. ministries, city authorities, regulators, public and private service providers) and factors (i.e. monitoring, institutional arrangements, regulatory enforcement, public and private finance).

Strong regulators are a critical component of these WASH systems. They can help to expand safe sanitation services by creating and arbitrating the ‘rules of the game’ to balance the interests of the government, users and private sector while also limiting harmful behaviours. Effective regulation has wide-ranging benefits. These include ensuring compliance with public health guidelines and other statutory requirements, promoting efficiency gains and good performance by service providers, and limiting the opportunities for – and heightening the disincentives for – integrity failures.

Conversely, where a robust regulatory system is not in place, we see that corruption and integrity failures are often prevalent. These acts occur at all levels, from skewed policy formulation to mismanagement of organisational resources, down to bribes for essential services. This severely undermines services, delaying interventions, causing the inefficient use of resources, and contributing to challenges such as high non-revenue water rates and service disruptions. However, globally, insufficient attention has been given to formulating and implementing the practical measures required to strengthen regulatory actors for urban sanitation and the broader regulatory environment to combat these acts.


Lusaka – A city making considerable progress but one that remains emblematic of integrity challenges

Lusaka, Zambia’s capital, is illustrative of many of the broader challenges affecting urban sanitation service delivery and the need to strengthen regulation. Like many cities in low- and lower-middle-income countries, Lusaka is experiencing rapid population growth (5% per annum). Expanding access to safe sanitation is a challenge, especially in the densely populated peri-urban areas that house 70% of the city’s inhabitants and most new arrivals. Climate change is also already affecting sanitation service delivery.

Zambia has well-established institutional arrangements for regulating the urban sanitation sub-sector. Responsibilities are split between the National Water Supply and Sanitation Council (NWASCO), the Zambia Environmental Management Agency, and the Zambia Public Procurement Agency. However, all these institutions suffer capacity constraints.

Zambia also has an altogether impressive regulatory environment for urban sewered sanitation. Regulators have autonomy, there are systems in place for effective participation and incentives for transparency and accountability. NWASCO reports on performance and has oversight over the Lusaka Water Supply and Sanitation Company (LWSC). Moreover, a 2018 strategic framework sets out how the non-sewered sanitation services used by 85% of Lusaka’s population are to be regulated moving forwards.

Eighteen percent of Zambians who had contact with a public service in 2018 paid a bribe – this is lower than the same figures for across Africa and globally, which are both 25%. Despite this somewhat positive picture and the progress made regulating Zambia’s urban sanitation sub-sector, new evidence shows that integrity failures and corruption remain pressing challenges.

Our report highlights several instances of corruption and poor integrity at different levels and involving a range of sector stakeholders. We focus on corruption in public financial management, corruption at the interface between institutions and individuals and other integrity failures. For example, there are cases where LWSC did not follow procurement protocols. Abuse of per diems is common and there are reported cases of bribery of public officials by the private sector, and bribery of public officials to obtain a service, reduce regular fees or speed-up administrative fees. These acts have delayed sanitation interventions, reduced the scope of large WASH programmes, caused scarce resources to be wasted on assets that were ultimately unused, and resulted in the inefficient delivery of services.


Moving forwards – further strengthening urban sanitation regulation

Corruption and integrity failures are undoubtedly common in the urban sanitation sub-sectors of many other countries, highlighting the global need to improve urban sanitation regulation. However, debates on these issues often centre on the broad need to strengthen governance. Insufficient attention is paid to developing and implementing the practical measures required to strengthen urban sanitation regulation and address these issues specifically.

The regulatory environment in Zambia is strong. Nevertheless, a comprehensive set of further improvements are required to address the entrenched factors causing corruption and integrity failures and to reap the wider benefits of effective regulation in sanitation in particular. One important means to this is to ensure the effective implementation of Zambia’s e-procurement system in the water supply and sanitation sector. The capacity of regulatory actors also needs to be enhanced – for example, by further expanding NWASCO’s pool of part-time inspectors to cover all of Zambia’s districts.

NWASCO could also expand the collection and reporting of data on petty corruption or corruption at the interface between institutions and individuals, including on indicators such as the percentage of the population that have paid a bribe and the rate of illegal connections and meter manipulations. Expediting the implementation of the 2018 strategic framework on regulating non-sewered sanitation is a further critical action point.

More broadly, the sanitation sector must develop a better understanding of underlying integrity risks and entrenched dynamics holding the sector back. We must move away from talking broadly about the need for good governance and start pushing national governments and development partners to increase funding for the substantive and long-term interventions required to strengthen urban sanitation regulation and improve integrity in the sector. It is only then that progress will be made in moving towards meeting universal coverage of safely managed sanitation services.


Download full report


Find out more about opportunities and ways to address integrity risks in urban water and sanitation – join WIN at Stockholm World Water

The post Strengthening Urban Sanitation Regulation to Expand and Sustain Services appeared first on WIN - Water Integrity Network.

Handbook on the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation

29 July 2021 at 10:13

Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) is promoting the Handbook for Realizing the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation, created by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human right … Read more

The post Handbook on the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation appeared first on UN-Water.

Getting water to Kabende subcounty, Uganda

27 July 2021 at 16:03
By: Grift


Balancing safe water needs, demands, and rights to water for the people of Kabende sub county, Kabarole district in Uganda

This was a collaborative effort with Naomi Kabarungi. Thanks also to Jane Nabunnya Mulumba and Martin Watsisi for all their contributions and inputs and to Angela Huston and Tettje van Daalen for the review.

Every person in the world should have safe and adequate water for drinking, sanitation, and hygiene needs. Safe water is an essential human right and also a prerequisite for the realisation of other human rights (Resolution A/RES/64/292. United Nations General Assembly, July 2010). Thus, governments, service providers and other stakeholders have the duty to provide safe, clean, accessible, and affordable drinking water and sanitation for all. Kabende sub county in the north of Kabarole district in Western Uganda is home to over 12,000 people, and they too must not be excluded from accessing their rights to safe water and sanitation.

Kabende is one of the 20 sub counties that form Kabarole District Local Government and is home to more than three percent of Kabarole's population. They solely survive on subsistence farming and eke a living from supplying surplus maize and potatoes to the regional food markets. Like in many other rural areas in Uganda, the people in Kabende depend on seasonal rainfall for all their major water supply needs, including agriculture and domestic use.

Rainfall in Kabende is low and unreliable compared to other parts of Kabarole district. River Sogahi is the only source of water for the Kabende community. The river water is not only insufficient but also contaminated and unsafe for domestic use. Kabende is identified as one of the sub counties with the least access to water, sanitation, and hygiene services in the district. See Kabarole District WASH (Water Sanitation and Hygiene) Master Plan 2018-2030.

But delivering sustainable WASH services is more than turning on a tap: it is becoming increasingly clear that water, sanitation, and hygiene services are delivered not only through infrastructure, but through an underlying support system that keeps infrastructure productive and efficient. This requires strong WASH systems at local and national levels, and collective action and change involving all the people who make up the system. Systems are the networks of people, organisations, institutions, and resources required to deliver sustainable WASH services.

Several bureaucratic, social, technical, and financial factors constantly interact and thus impact the service delivered. IRC supports this collective action through the 'Change Hub' by supporting learning alliances and local solutions while acting as a backbone to each partnership, and helping local leaders lead and coordinate partners, facilitate relationships, provide expertise and monitoring, help share learning and ensure continuous communication among partners. IRC supported Kabarole DLG (District Local Government) to prepare the WASH Master Plan for the district. The plan not only accentuated the glaring deficiencies in the least served areas such as Kabende but also helped the district elaborate its vision, identify opportunities, lay down an elaborate plan and determine the cost of achieving 100% coverage.

"The Kabarole District WASH Master Plan is a milestone, an artefact of a political and social process. Its development was also an intervention, one guided by our belief that such processes and products are essential tools in generating and binding political engagement and supporting collective action,"
Jane N. Mulumba, Country Director IRC Uganda.

A vision of universal access

IRC Uganda is a long-standing partner that continues to support Kabarole district to popularise and implement the plan towards the vision of access for all. The master plan among other strategies for action proposes private-public partnerships (PPP) to increase investment in, and delivery of WASH services, leaving no one behind. In 2019, IRC Uganda facilitated a PPP between Kabarole DLG, National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) and IRC, to extend a piped water system from Kijura Town Council to supply Kabende sub county beyond the semi-urban centre to the rural areas.

The Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and Waterloo Foundation have provided funds to IRC Uganda to support Kabarole DLG to implement the WASH master plan in three areas:

  1. Systematic sanitation improvement at the household level includes household sanitation improvement campaigns alongside the local government to ensure household sanitation service improvement across the sanitation ladder in two sub counties of Harugongo and Karangura.
  2. WASH in Health Care Facilities (HCFs) with a focus on access to water, hand hygiene and waste management including the installation of handwashing and drinking water stations in 15 HCFs and low-cost incinerators at selected high volume health care facilities.
  3. Access to safe water for the underserved including providing clean water to Kabende Sub County using a public-private partnership with the National Water and Sewerage Corporation, including the extension of water to two water stressed parishes of Masongora and Kasesenge and two HCFs (Kabende HCIII and Kasesenge HCII).
  4. Support the development of Town Sanitation Plans Towns Councils of Mugusu, Kijura, Kiko, Kasenda Town Councils
  5. Support COVID-19 Response interventions for Kabarole District Local Government including the provision of PPEs, renovation, and construction of sanitation facilities, provision of drinking water facilities, infection prevention and control and risk communication activities

Through a series of interviews with service providers, users, local leadership and the district technical team, we share some of the challenges and successes they have experienced in the work they have done.

Stories as told by - Engineer Basudde Bruno, the District Water Engineer for Kabarole, Michael Tumubwine, the NWSC Area Manager for Kijura Town Council in Kabarole District, Mary Nyangoma, a Nursing Assistant and Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) Focal Person at Kabende Health Centre III and James Katushabe, the local council chairperson of Kabende sub county (LCIII).

Where it all started....

Engineer Basudde Bruno
Engineer Basudde Bruno

I am Engineer Basudde Bruno, the District Water Engineer for Kabarole, whose area of authority covers Kabende. Kabende is one of the geographically water-stressed areas and suffered rebel insurgence of the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) in the mid-1990s. I recall that between 2017 and 2018, the area experienced severe drought, which caused food insecurity and deaths in the community.

Government responded by introducing an irrigation scheme in Masongora village serviced by River Sogahi to ensure food security and enhance agricultural production in the area. While the agricultural investment was a priority under the circumstances, safe WASH services for the community remained a low priority.

People fetched dirty water from River Sogahi and used the irrigation water collected directly from the irrigation inlets to their gardens, rather than trek to and from the community boreholes that were far off. "Now they are giving us water for irrigation when we don't have water to drink", they lamented.

Scientific tests on the underground water resources showed presence of E. coli, meaning the water was unsafe for home consumption. There was an outbreak of disease like bilharzia. We realised that the cost of treating the water, and operation and maintenance would be an unsustainable venture for the district. Moreover, Kabende being a non-urban location, with a small population of isolated households that are not willing nor able to pay, was not a viable business for National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) to get them a piped water extension.

Kabarole District Headquarters
Kabarole District Headquarters

That is how the PPP with the DLG, NWSC and IRC came into place to undertake a phased project to cover the least served parishes in the district at a total budget of UGX 270m (USD 76,187.22). Kabarole DLG and IRC committed funds upfront. This was an initial budget of UGX 185M (approx. USD 5,000). IRC has so far supported with UGX 72M (approx. USD 19,200) and UGX 39M on the way for completion. In total IRC will spend about USD 30,000. This amount from IRC is for materials and installations, while NWSC committed technical resources for meeting the costs of labour and procurement, as well as lifetime operations and maintenance structures for the project. Masongora parish in Kabende, was the first beneficiary and is now equipped with a public water supply stand in the village centre. The water stand provides water at a highly subsidised cost of UGX 100 per jerrycan of 20 litres and is operated as a small business by a local community member who remits 60% to NWSC and retains profits of 40%.

We engaged and consulted with the community at the start of the project, and they confirmed the urgent need for safe water services. Other than the water fees, there have not been any complaints about the tap stand at Masongora but on priorities at household level where expenditure on water is considered too high in relation to other needs, and besides 'free' water was also available in the river. Even when we tell them that this water is contaminated, their typical response is. "Ahh, but we have been drinking this water since we were born."

Meeting the 30% water access/use target for the project is therefore a challenge amidst such community attitudes and priority spending at household level. When one looks at a person's income versus the cost of connecting the water, one will see that this person just does not know the benefits of access to safe water. There is a need to continue sensitisation so that people can appreciate the value and accept to pay, and therefore help the NWSC to provide a sustainable service.


Michael Tumubwine
Michael Tumubwine

My name is Michael Tumubwine, I am the NWSC Area Manager for Kijura Town Council in Kabarole District. National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) is the government entity mandated to provide water and sanitation services to urban centres, and our mission is 'to sustainably and equitably provide cost-effective quality water and sewerage services to the delight of all stakeholders while conserving the environment.' The NWSC operates a business model where the customer is king. The partnership with Kabarole District Local Government and IRC opened our eyes to the opportunity in Kabende, and we are happy to report that the Health Centre III and schools within the sub county have been good paying customers.

Through the partnership with Kabarole DLG and IRC, we have extended piped water to Masongora which though rural, is an agricultural business area with a population that can pay for a subsidised service. The need in Masongora has been huge. The only water available has come from the River Sogahi and is used for irrigation, but the community is still using it for drinking and cooking because it is free of charge.

We set up a public tap stand in the local centre in Masongora, and users pay only UGX 100 (USD 0.02) per jerrycan. It is much nearer than the stream (River Sogahi) and therefore people can save their time for productive work instead of collecting water.

However, we still have challenges with the population's mindset. Someone will say, "Since my birth I have been drinking water from this stream, so how can you convince me at my age not to?". Most believe that water should be for free and cannot understand why they should pay the minimal cost. They still prefer the "free" source which exposes them to infection and disease.

Together with the district and local leaders, we have continued to create awareness on the importance of using safe piped water. The statistics from Kabende Health Centre III show a decline in waterborne diseases which means we are making substantial progress. However, most of the users in the village have not yet adapted to automated payment systems such as mobile money and therefore do not pay their bills promptly. To mitigate the problem, we sometimes collect the money physically and pay this into the bank on behalf of the customers.

Kabende has shown the potential to provide good business for NWSC. The community interest in the piped water supply is increasing. For instance, they often ask; "It has been off for two days, what is the problem?", indicating that they need the service.

NWSC's key role is to extend clean, treated piped water coverage in the community, through standpipes and domestic connections eventually.

The PPP model is replicable in other areas and NWSC is in discussion with Kabarole DLG to extend water in the areas of Muhoire, Ntezzi, and Nyabusenyi 1 villages.

How is it working

Mary Nyangoma, I am 37 years old, and a Nursing Assistant and Infection Prevention and Control (IPC)
Mary Nyangoma

My name is Mary Nyangoma, I am 37 years old, and a Nursing Assistant and Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) Focal Person at Kabende Health Centre III. I have worked 9 years at this facility, and 14 years in public service.

About a year ago we did not have piped water at the health centre. We would send someone to collect a 20L jerrycan of water at UGX 1,000 (USD 0.28) in the dry season and UGX 500 (0.14 USD) in the rainy season. They would fetch it from the borehole about 5km uphill.

Since we got the NWSC piped supply water, the hygiene situation at Kabende HCIII has improved. The pressure is good, and it is clean water, at least to the eye. The tap is right here in the compound, even get as much water as possible before it closes again.

We do not have storage tanks. We can only fill the few jerrycans we have, and the handwashing cans (10L).

It is not possible to store enough when the supply is flowing; they release the water for a maximum of an hour, there is much demand and then it is also not planned. At times we still must send for water from the borehole – the same way we did when we had no piped water. Occasionally it comes when we have paid for water from the borehole, so people have lost interest.

It would be helpful if NWSC communicates the time when they plan to release water, then we would make schedules to fetch it. We do not have dedicated staff in charge of the water stock nor a budget for buying the water, so the task of collecting water is done voluntarily by cleaners, who also get tired and have other priorities. They get and ration their water according to their duty needs.

A health centre needs flowing water all the time. Both our staff and clients need water for handwashing at critical points, personal hygiene, and administering urgent medicine. We make our water safe for drinking by boiling or filtering. These activities are happening all the time; that means that every time the taps are dry, our staff and patients are exposed to risks of infection and delayed response to their health needs.

We have reached out to NWSC through our local leaders at the sub county office. They say that the water is rationed so that more people can be served in the community. I appreciate that, but I wish that the health centre would be given priority. Instead, they can regulate supply by giving reduced pressure on the water flow but keeping it consistently available on tap. It would help me stay focused on the core job to serve our customers.

The change due to water tap on the premises

Before we got the direct water supply to our compound, Kabende HCIII had an intake of about 75-100 cases of hygiene-related infections. Now it is as low as 20 and not more than 40. People wash their hands more regularly and the toilets are cleaned, with handwashing points at the entrance in compliance with COVID-19 Standard Operating Procedures.

Without NWSC we spent UGX 6,000 (USD 1.70) to the water vendor for water collected per day. Complaints of diarrhoea and typhoid were common here at the Kabende Health Centre III, but the situation has improved. We think that if the water supply is consistent and is also extended to those communities far from the town where our clients come from, this would deter most infections caused using untreated and unsafe water.

The 'Voice' of the people of Kabende

James Katushabe
James Katushabe

My name is James Katushabe, and I was re-elected to the office at the beginning of 2021 as the local council chairperson of Kabende sub county (LCIII). People voted for me because of my passion for hygiene and sanitation in the community. I am not just a talker, I am a politician who also takes action. I was happy when the water reached Kabende in March 2020. However, there were complaints of inconsistent supply right from the start.

As a leader, I consulted NWSC, the service provider. I was told by the officials that 'the challenge was too much pressure caused by the gravitational force as the water slopes to Kabende, causing the pipes to burst time and again.' NWSC has fixed the problem with a 'brake pressure pump,' but this has resulted in them controlling the supply of the water, and only turning it on at their will. This has posed another problem for the people. The water is not readily available for convenient use by them. What is the point of investing in a project (the PPP) if people cannot have access to water all the time?

Water is essential for facilities such as the Kabende Health Centre III, Kabende Muslim Standard School with about 140 pupils and the Masongora Primary School with an enrolment of 283 pupils, especially in these days of the COVID pandemic. Yet the facilities still have to buy at a higher price from the water vendors who collect it from the far-off borehole.

The public tap stand at Masongora is good and the fee is affordable. But I want my people to be ambitious and ask for more because it is their right, and it is possible. My desire would be that at least in every household, there should be piped water in every home. As the community advances, households will have flush toilets, and better housing facilities. Water needs to be regular to attract such investments and improvements in the local community. I would love to stay in a place with a very good road and a good school for my children to attend.

A group of people fetching water from a well Description automatically generated with medium confidence. The demand and consumption of piped water is evident in Kabende. It is estimated that one hundred jerrycans are dispensed daily for domestic use (LC1 Chairman report). There is an urgent need to extend the service to water stressed areas such as Karuteete, one of the twenty-eight villages in Kabende sub county. There is a disconnect between the service providers and the political leaders. Users at the public tap stand, said they expected free water, because the politicians promised it if they voted for them. The community needs to be helped to understand that for the taps to flow for good, the source must be maintained, and this costs money.

Download the stories

New video shows how a citywide plan aims to tackle Malindi’s dirty secret: sanitation

27 July 2021 at 09:40

Malindi, popular for its beautiful beaches and a celebrated tourist town, has a dirty secret. Three-quarters of the city’s 310,000 residents have no access to safely managed sanitation.

Residents are forced to rely on illegal and unsafe pit-emptying services and the waste that is collected is then dumped at an unregulated municipal dumpsite or disposed off in fields, open grounds, rivers and drains.

As a result, 90% of hand dug wells are contaminated with faecal waste causing serious health risks in the communities. The lack of proper waste management is also causing environmental damage and threatening marine life.

The problem is only set to worsen. As rapid urbanisation in Malindi continues, the amount of waste is forecast to grow exponentially. This is requiring city authorities to devise a plan for tackling the problems not just of today, but for years to come.

Watch our film to find out how WSUP has been working with city leaders to create an ambitious sanitation plan to tackle the problem:

The County Government of Kilifi and regional water and sanitation utility, Malindi Water & Sewerage Company (MAWASCO) with other partners like the regulator WASREB and the sanitation specialists at Sanivation, are taking steps to ensure that all residents in Malindi can access safely managed sanitation services.

Read the citywide inclusive sanitation plan for Malindi here.

Top image: An informal waste collector in Malindi

New UNDRR Strategic Framework is launched

26 July 2021 at 10:17

The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) has launched its new Strategic Framework, covering the period 2022-2025. Following a consultation process that involved all of UNDRR, the UN … Read more

The post New UNDRR Strategic Framework is launched appeared first on UN-Water.

Getting water to Kabende subcounty, Uganda

22 July 2021 at 16:13

Challenges and successes of a public private partnership between Kabarole District Local Government, National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) and IRC Uganda.

In 2019, IRC Uganda facilitated a public private partnership between Kabarole District Local Government, National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) and IRC, to extend a piped water system from Kijura Town Council to supply Kabende sub county beyond the semi-urban centre to the rural areas. Through a series of interviews with service providers, users, local leadership and the district technical team, we share some of the challenges and successes the partners have experienced in the work they have done.

Can new pan-African policy guidelines help bring about national sanitation programmes?

22 July 2021 at 14:11

With 72% of the 962 million people living in Sub-Saharan Africa lacking access to basic sanitation, and governments struggling to increase access, new action is required to accelerate progress towards Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.

This situation has been exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic, further underscoring the need for African governments to meet their national, regional, and global water, sanitation, and hygiene obligations.

Now, a new initiative aims to help push forward the development of national sanitation and hygiene policies across the continent. But what will the African Sanitation Policy Guidelines, created by the African Council of Ministers on Water (AMCOW) aim to achieve?

Construction of a sanitation block in Ghana

ASPG will guide African Union member states to create national and sub-national sanitation policies and strategies. The guidelines aim to resolve major enabling environment bottlenecks that stand in the way of accelerating access to basic sanitation for all. Presently, most African governments have not met their commitments to the 2015 Ngor Ministerial Commitments on sanitation and hygiene.

A suitable enabling environment provides a solid foundation for inclusive sanitation planning, investment, and management. It clarifies and defines institutional and market player roles, thereby strengthening stakeholder inclusion, coordination, and participation. Further, it unlocks the potential for capacity strengthening of institutional and market-based players, paving the way for development and financing of large-scale public sanitation programmes and entry of private sector investors.

Read more about on the importance of good governance, finance, policy and regulation

The development and roll-out of ASPG is envisaged to resolve multiple, systemic institutional and market barriers, whose removal will accelerate provision of safely managed sanitation and hygiene services in Africa and help meet SDG 6.2 global targets.

The process started with a 26-country assessment conducted by AMCOW in 2019, revealing that most existing sanitation policies and strategies do not adequately address the critical elements of the enabling environment necessary to ensure access to safely managed sanitation for all.

WSUP supported the development of ASPG through its active participation in the Task Force, alongside representatives from organizations such as Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, UNICEF, WHO, African Development Bank, GIZ and the World Bank. WSUP also provided stakeholder consultations’ organization support in Kenya and participated in Zambia and Ghana country meetings. This is in addition to offering technical support in the synthesis and compilation of findings from the 12 country consultations.

Improving the sewer network in Githima, Kenya

In particular, the regulation part of the guidelines cite analysis conducted by WSUP and the Eastern & Southern Africa Water and Sanitation Regulator Association (ESAWAS) on different regulatory frameworks for sanitation in our joint report entitled Referee! Responsibilities, regulations and regulating for urban sanitation.

Read the report: Referee! Responsibilities, regulations and regulating for urban sanitation

It also alludes to the findings of research commissioned by WSUP in four African cities of Kisumu (Kenya), Nakuru (Kenya), Malindi (Kenya) and Kumasi (Ghana) and one Asian city (Rangpur, in Bangladesh). This study showed that the costs of developing and maintaining sanitation services depend primarily on the context and the sanitation systems selected by the residents.

WSUP will partner with AMCOW and other stakeholders to ensure the successful roll-out of ASPG across Africa. WSUP is committed to actively participating and providing leadership in developing and reviewing sanitation and hygiene policies in our six core markets in the continent – Madagascar, Mozambique, Zambia, Kenya, Uganda, and Ghana.

Top image: A boy visiting a toilet in Githima. Credit: Brian Otieno

World Water Week in Stockholm 2021

22 July 2021 at 10:26

The 2021 edition of World Water Week will be held as a full-scale digital event on 23-27 August, on the theme Building Resilience Faster. During the week, UN-Water will convene … Read more

The post World Water Week in Stockholm 2021 appeared first on UN-Water.

Life-cycle cost analysis for Splash school interventions in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Update 2021

20 July 2021 at 13:52
By: Naafs

The WISE project is set to provide safe water, good sanitation, and healthy hygiene to all the schools in Addis Ababa. To put these services in place, both AAEB and SPLASH are investing considerable amounts of money. Hand washing stations, drinking water filters, latrine blocks are being built and hygiene behaviour change campaigns rolled out. But how much does it cost to keep these running once the project is over? Who will finance these operational costs?

IRC WASH did a study in 2019 to look at all the different costs (using the so-called – Life-Cycle Cost Approach- LCCA) and has now updated it for 2021. This has provided the following insights:

  • The WISE project has adapted since 2019 and has been raising the provided service levels. Particularly by reducing intermittent water, by including faecal sludge aspects, and by broadening hygiene training with janitors. This has led to an increase in CapEx cost per student from ETB 886 to ETB 3103. The Main CapEx cost is sanitation (63%) and therefore improving costs effectiveness of sanitation should have priority.
  • The annual recurrent expenditure is ETB 256 per student per year, of which ETB 184 (71%) is covered by Taxes (School budgets), 6% by Tariffs (parents paying for soap), and ETB 57 by Transfers (Splash mainly on support costs and operation costs for water).
  • To achieve good quality basic service levels ETB 595 per student per year on recurrent cost is needed. This gives a current finance gap of ETB 338, which is mainly toilet paper for students, which arguably should be covered by Tariffs (parents or other sources of income).

The key to securing funds for sustainable funding for WASH is working with sub-city and woreda staff on the allocation of the available budget. The annual recurrent expenditure of ETB 184 per student per year should be raised to ETB 240 to remove dependency on SPLASH funds for annual recurrent costs. This is respectively 6% and 4% of primary and secondary school fund allocation.

El camino hacia el desarrollo de herramientas para el manejo de activos

20 July 2021 at 12:59
Esta entrada fue realizada por PRACTICA Foundation como miembro de la RWSN. En el ultimo post, se mostraron las herramientas para el manejo de activos que se estan desarrollando por la Alianza WASH Internacional. Las experiencias previas demostraron que utilizar un enfoque basado en los usuarios es importante para incrementar el impacto de los proyectos. Para este … Continue reading "El camino hacia el desarrollo de herramientas para el manejo de activos"

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La feuille de route pour le développement d’outils de gestion des actifs (GA)

20 July 2021 at 12:48
Ceci est un blog de la Fondation PRACTICA, organisation membre du RWSN. Dans le précédent article, les outils de GA en cours de développement par la WASH Alliance International ont été présentés. Nos expériences précédentes ont démontré qu’il est important d’adopter des approches inclusives et centrées sur les utilisateurs pour augmenter l’impact des activités du projet. … Continue reading "La feuille de route pour le développement d’outils de gestion des actifs (GA)"

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The road map for Asset Management tools development

20 July 2021 at 12:12
This is a guest blog by RWSN Member Organisation PRACTICA Foundation. In the last blog post, the Asset Management tools under development by the WASH Alliance International were presented. Previous experiences demonstrated that including user-centered approaches is key to increase the impact of project activities. The main activities for this project include a needs’ assessment, … Continue reading "The road map for Asset Management tools development"

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World Bank launch Farmer-led Irrigation Development Guide

19 July 2021 at 10:38

By 2050, the world’s population will reach 10 billion people and global food demand will increase by 60%. This challenge is intensified by agriculture’s extreme vulnerability to climate change. The … Read more

The post World Bank launch Farmer-led Irrigation Development Guide appeared first on UN-Water.

Build back for the world of tomorrow, not the world of today, experts warn

15 July 2021 at 18:16

City leaders need to do more to understand, plan for and respond to the threats of climate change.

Cities in developing countries need to focus more on the impacts that climate change will have on their ability to deliver inclusive water and sanitation services, according to speakers at a WSUP event held this week.

The event titled The Missing Piece of Climate Adaptation, was moderated by WSUP’s Chief Executive, Neil Jeffery, and looked at the impact of climate change on providing water and sanitation services to the cities’ most vulnerable residents as well as ways we can better integrate these services into climate resilience efforts.

Fatima Mussa, Water Lead for WSUP in Mozambique highlighted the devastation caused by Cyclone Idai, the impact on water and sanitation, and the need to prepare the city of Beira for more cyclones of this magnitude.

“Parts of the water supply system were seriously damaged, “she said.… “[Only] 10% of the city is covered by drainage system and the sewerage and flood water were mixed which was a public health risk.”

Watch our film: Two years on from Cyclone Idai, Beira is rebuilding

“There is still a lot to be done, there is a need for infrastructure, toilets, septic tanks, etc. There is also a need for citywide sanitation services to reduce public health risks when areas are flooded,” she said, adding: “It’s also important to look at this issue of solid waste management.”

Supporting residents like Vasco to access water services in Beira, Mozambique. Credit: Stand Up Media

Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change – but how is this affecting water and sanitation coverage in urban areas? Pritum Saha, M&E Coordinator for WSUP in Bangladesh, shared multiple ways in which climate change is affecting services, and how WSUP is contributing towards a solution.

He highlighted how climatic events such as sea level rise and flooding are displacing 700,000 people per year in Bangladesh, among them 400,000 climate refugees which migrated to Dhaka alone in 2020. As a result, city authorities are unable to cope with the rising demand for basic services such as water and sanitation.

Blog: How climate change is worsening sanitation in Bangladesh

On the need for sanitation services that protect the communities, Pritum spoke about SWEEP: a public-private sanitation waste management service that was set up by WSUP.

Video: A vision for a green city: can improved sanitation help?

A SWEEP vacuum tanker making its rounds in Dhaka, Bangaladesh

Drought, extreme flooding, heat, rising sea levels are all affecting WASH services in cities. So, what can we do about it?

Katrin Bruebach, Global Director, Programs, Innovation and Impact at Resilient Cities Network highlighted how many issues cities are already grappling with.

Solutions that address multiple problems from flooding to solid waste management as well as underlying stresses such as poverty and unemployment, will stand the most chance of being adopted, she argued.

Read more about how integrating WASH within wider urban development is making a difference

Joep Verhagen, Program Lead Water & Urban at The Global Center on Adaptation spoke about how the world is not on track to meet the Sustainable Development Goal 6 targets and how climate change is going to compound this challenge.
But for the urban poor, he said, it is difficult to distinguish what is climate change and what is already a poor service.

Alex McNamara, Programme Manager, Environmental Sustainability at the National Business Initiative in South Africa highlighted the importance of building strong municipal businesses which can provide good customer service, billing, and make sure services are properly priced.

He highlighted how the municipality in Durban looked at climate adaptation not as an additional cost, but as a saving: given how preventative action to improve drainage would reduce the clean-up required after heavy rains. The initiative helped communities to clear rivers, improve ecosystems and create jobs.

Katrin Bruebach highlighted how in the last 20 years the world has failed to solve the sanitation crisis, but that the current pandemic has brought WASH to the forefront. Demonstrating the problems that cities will face if they fail to address the water needs of their communities is vital if we are to be able to generate momentum on the issue.

The current pandemic has shown the importance of handwashing with soap as the simplest and most effective way to prevent the spread of a virus

Lord Boateng, Chairman of WSUP highlighted in his closing remarks that the public health challenge of inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene is also a climate change challenge, and there is no solution to one without the other.

WSUP has been implementing climate adaptation work for 15 years, supporting cities to grapple with urbanisation and the increasing fragility of urban life for the poorest residents. In each country where we work, we have developed solutions which work – changing institutions for the better and improving the lives of millions of people.

As climate change gathers pace, we need to step up this work to protect the lives of the most vulnerable. WSUP is determined to do as much as we can to tackle this problem.

Learn more about our climate change work

Top image: Resident in Beira washing his hands. Credit: Stand Up Media

New UNICEF report highlights attacks on water and sanitation facilities

15 July 2021 at 10:09

UNICEF has warned that attacks on water and sanitation facilities and workers in conflicts around the world are putting the lives of millions of children at risk and deny children … Read more

The post New UNICEF report highlights attacks on water and sanitation facilities appeared first on UN-Water.

My RWSN mentoring experience

14 July 2021 at 13:42
This is a guest blog by RWSN mentee Edwin Kiprotich Kiplagat , who is currently enrolled in the 2021 RWSN Mentoring Programme . I am Edwin Kiprotich Kiplagat, a young and an ambituous Civil Engineer by training from Kenya. I currently work as an intern for the Water Infrastructure function at SMEC in Kenya. SMEC … Continue reading "My RWSN mentoring experience"

Edwin and Elon




My RWSN mentoring experience

14 July 2021 at 13:29
This is a guest blog by RWSN mentee Gaurav Thapak and RWSN mentor Pallavi Bharadwaj, who are currently enrolled in the 2021 RWSN Mentoring Programme . Mentee’s Thoughts I am an architect and urban planner with the National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), New Delhi, India. I work extensively in the urban areas on Water, … Continue reading "My RWSN mentoring experience"

Pallavi and Gaurav