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Before yesterdayIRC Sanitation

Terminating the problem of unsafe water and sanitation services

19 October 2021 at 10:37
By: huston

Recently I listened to a speech by Arnold Schwarzenegger on how the climate movement is stuck and needs to reset. I think our approach to solving the water and sanitation crisis could help.

I recently listened to a speech by Arnold Schwarzenegger at the Austrian Climate Summit. He lamented about the stagnation and apathy in the movement to combat climate change.  People are ‘stuck in despair and confusion,’ he said, struggling to grasp what it means for the future of our species, which leaves them frozen and unable to take a single step forward.  Headlines like: ‘The icebergs are melting’, ‘Don’t use plastic’, ‘1.5 degrees is a tipping point’, ‘We should be carbon free’ and ‘It's all connected’. What do they really mean?

Similar to the ‘paralysis by analysis’ that we talk about as systems thinkers and leaders, too much information can be counterproductive. This is especially when it is alarming and there is no clear strategic guidance to help us sort through it to find a positive way forward.

Being the action-movie hero that he is, Schwarzenegger (also known as The Terminator), proposed that we need a single shared enemy around which we can rally the public, and international governments, to create a path toward victory and a better future. Schwarzenegger proposes we call this enemy ‘pollution,’ as a useful oversimplification - a clear visual guide - something around which we can create an action plan. ‘Pollution is bad… pollution makes my kids sick… we need to stop polluting in our cities and with the way we live.’ Voilà, the antagonist in our plot to reverse climate change has emerged.

With the problem clear, solutions begin to surface and make sense. The public can participate; we could pollute less by eating vegetarian food, because animal farms create a lot of pollution. We could pollute less by taking the train, because planes leave that cloud of smoke. Our country could pollute less by changing how we produce energy, and by consuming less of it overall.

With a shared (if not simplistic) vision of what the problem is, a wide spectrum of citizens and businesses can start to imagine solutions that they can contribute to, while calling on government and business leaders to be the protagonists for leading our journey toward triumph.

Is ‘The Terminator’ a visionary? I’m not sure. But what he says resonates with my experiences in the water and sanitation sector. And I would argue that our sector is far ahead of the climate movement in terms of leadership.

Workshop with learning alliance in Kabarole, incl. District Councillor, District Engineer, Health Officer, NGO representative

A strategy workshop with the learning alliance in Kabarole District, including a District Councillor, District Engineer, Health Officer, and a representative of an environmental NGO. Photo credit: IRC Uganda

In my research on public drinking water safety, I have seen that a vision-led approach to solving complex problems can surface viable solutions from confusion and despair. I’ve seen this in district council meetings, national ministerial dialogues, and Watershed stakeholders workshops. A shared vision and goal, a strategy to achieve it, and a set of manageable tasks to start pursuing that goal are enough to get started with an incremental, or even a radical, change agenda.  

Taking the example of Uganda 

In our recent article in the International Journal of Water Resources Developmentwe wrote about the drinking water systems transformation underway in Uganda. Uganda’s [national] Vision 2040 calls for piped drinking water for all and establishes a palpable vision to move ‘from a peasant to a modern and prosperous society’ in 30 years. Supported by Sustainable Development Goal Targets and a series of National Development Plans, the direction of travel is clear. What does success look like? The picture is on the cover: Rockets, high speed trains, excellence across the board. Including universal safely managed drinking water services.

Cover image of Uganda Vision 2040


Globally, public service systems take decades, or centuries, to develop; this is usually achieved through gradual (if not meandering) social and technical change. The government alone cannot command instant change, but it can provide a vision, guidance, and coherence between short- and long-term policy (Rotmans et al.,2001).

Vision 2040 provides a framework within which other actors can innovate and experiment to contribute to the desired change. The government uses incentives and disincentives, for example corporate subsidies and regulation, to encourage (or force) other actors to support its strategy. The precise modalities for achieving Uganda Vision 2040 are not known from the start, but they are discovered over time through collective action and adaptive management in pursuit of the clearly established vision; these include regulatory mechanisms, tariff systems, operation and maintenance frameworks, etc.

This also includes guiding decentralised actors to understand and implement the national agenda. A learning alliance has been established in Kabarole District, Uganda, to help pursue the drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene targets at district level through the identification of solutions that also show promise for scaling nationally. At the heart of this, is the Kabarole District WASH Master Plan 2018-2030.

Our paper describes IRC’s use of a scenario planning exercise to support this process with the learning alliance. Using GIS maps to simulate different possible future scenarios (e.g., water resource degradation or massive piped water extension), we were able to bring diverse stakeholders to a shared understanding of what the future of drinking water services might look like, both positive and negative. 

Fig 1aFig 1bFig 1cFig 1d 

Figure 1: Current situation and future scenarios in Kabarole district. From Left to right : a) water points in 2019, where pink dots are shallow wells/springs, blue are stand taps and deep boreholes; b) 2030 scenario of water resource degradation eliminating shallow sources c) piped network coverage areas in 2019 d) 2030 scenario of expanded piped networks. See Huston et al, (2021).

The scenarios were not intended to be predictive; they were used to prompt a wide range of stakeholders to think creatively together about solutions, and to become invested in helping to shape the future. Aside from the ideas that we came up with, stakeholders left the scenario development exercise with a more refined understanding of the vision they were trying to achieve, and more ideas about what they, as individuals and organisations, could do to help get there. 

Vision, strategy, plan, action

The challenge of achieving universal drinking water services, in even one district, is enormous. But as Schwarzenegger warned in his speech, ‘the constant [focus on] how huge the obstacles are, at some point undermines [peoples’] will to accept and to act.’  When we are working with district councillors, church ministers, civil society leaders, water resource engineers, and more - it is essential that people accept the challenge, then immediately feel empowered and motivated to overcome it.

Does the vision have to be perfect? No. Does the strategy have to have all the details worked out in order to start? No. What is important is that the people involved come to a shared understanding of the current problem and a relatively aligned long-term vision of what the solutions might be. Then, we can move from frozen and daunted toward alert, taking concrete steps to move forward.

If our journey to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 6 and reverse climate change were an action film? Advice from Mr. Schwarzenegger: 'no one is going to invest huge sums of money in a movie where there is no hope.'

Strengthening WASH businesses in Ethiopia: Start-up requirements and their impact on WASH market development

18 October 2021 at 09:57
By: Feldman

Clearing the way – helping WASH enterprises get an easier start in Ethiopia.

In a series of posts, we will present the main challenges that businesses face when expanding the range of WASH products and services available to households in Ethiopia. After describing these challenges, we will recommend a series of regulatory changes and policy actions designed to address these issues and improve the overall business climate so that enterprises can more easily start up, grow, and serve their communities sustainably. 

This is the fifth of eight planned articles, and it addresses the challenges that enterprises face when starting up WASH-related businesses in Ethiopia.

Woman at an WASH enterprise in Ethiopia

Why does this matter?

Currently, only nine percent of Ethiopians have access to basic sanitation services – a serious situation that affects public health, education, and many other aspects of the country’s economic and social well-being (JMP, 2020). Achieving universal access to basic WASH facilities cannot be done by government or NGOs alone; it will require a strong contribution from the country’s private sector. The Government of Ethiopia recognises this and is working to strengthen private sector businesses that offer WASH products and services, as key element of its greater focus on market-based sanitation (FMoH, 2016). These measures are necessary because the current market only meets a small fraction of the country’s enormous needs.

To gain insight into how these challenges can be addressed, and to do so in a manner that ensures the solutions are affordable to all, the USAID Transform WASH team spoke with a wide range of experts – including business owners, government officials, and technical specialists in Ethiopia and other East African countries – to get their advice and recommendations on how to develop and expand Ethiopia’s WASH market. The post that follows is largely based on these experts’ reflections.

To learn more, follow this link to the Learning Note.

Business start-up requirements

Starting up a business in Ethiopia entails a wide range of administrative, financial, and legal steps. Some entrepreneurs raised concerns that this process can be overly time-consuming, complex, and costly and creates a disincentive to opening a business, especially in a relatively new commercial market, such as for affordable WASH products and services. 

There are range of concerns cited by businesses involved in the start-up or early phases of operation, including:

  • Complex and costly process to import raw materials or finished goods
  • Increasingly strict and constantly changing regulatory environment; some complain of an ‘anti-business’ climate (government mistrust of businesses’ motives)
  • Difficulty accessing hard currency (foreign exchange, or ‘forex’) for procurement and importation and other international transactions
  • High tax and duty rates, which are passed on through higher prices to consumers, thus lowering demand.

These and other challenges are significant contributors to the World Bank’s ranking of Ethiopia as one of the most difficult countries in the world in which to do business. On the other hand, when federal or regional agencies are supportive of a particular project or business, they can pave the way toward rapid progress, so the experiences of individual businesses in the start-up phase can vary considerably.

Business start-up requires that several administrative applications be filed with the appropriate regional and federal government agencies followed by their sign-off or approval. For certain types of operations, like manufacturing, additional steps may be required, such as preparing an environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) for the Environment, Forest and Climate Change Commission. If a full ESIA is required, the preparation process typically requires several types of technical experts and can involve a large investment of funds by the applicant. ESIAs serve a vital national purpose of protecting Ethiopia’s environment and local livelihoods, but smaller business start-ups may struggle with this application requirement among others. These processes also require an investment of time, which entails additional costs that start-ups may find difficult or impossible to afford. Initial government review of ESIAs is intended to be relatively rapid (around three weeks), but in practice the entire process of review, revision (as requested by authorities), and approval can take considerably longer. During that time, progress on the specific operation under review will likely be put on hold. One business noted that their ESIA process took more than one year.

A significant issue for foreign enterprises trying to establish an Ethiopian operation is the requirement that they make an initial deposit equivalent of at least US$ 200,000 in an Ethiopian bank (joint ventures between a foreign company and a local partner have a slightly lower requirement of US$ 150,000). While these funds can later be spent once the business is established, the size of this initial deposit can present a significant hurdle for many investors and small- to medium-sized enterprises.

In some countries, including the UK and South Africa, a separate classification has been created and designed for businesses that address social issues. These are referred to as “social enterprises” (SEs), which are deemed to support the government in meeting economic growth, public health, or other societal objectives.  SEs are businesses that have a well-defined social purpose but operate using commercial business principles. The SE classification confers tax incentives, streamlined registration processes, and other benefits. This allows such enterprises to combine the mission typically associated with a non-profit agency with the focus and efficiency of a for-profit company (and, in the process, generate revenue to finance a portion of its operations). By encouraging the emergence of SEs as a formally established business structure, governments can expand and speed up access to critical services, such as education, energy, health, and water and sanitation, especially in poor communities or regions where it is often most challenging to extend those services.

In Ethiopia, the SE registration option does not yet exist. However, a registered non-profit or non-governmental organisation (NGO) can apply to the Agency for Civil Society Organisations (ACSO) to undertake an income-generating activity (IGA). This allows an NGO to generate revenue under its IGA wing, separately registered, which can be used to cover some of the NGO’s administrative and operational costs while continuing to receive grants and donations. However, relatively few NGOs have sought an IGA classification (British Council, 2017). The British Council study found that most socially-minded businesses in Ethiopia either register as a micro or small enterprise (MSE) or as a sole proprietorship. Another finding was that, regardless of their registration as for-profit businesses, these companies continued to regard themselves as SEs.  

The fact that many socially minded businesses choose to register as MSEs fits with the government’s policy, which states that encouraging the expansion of the MSE sector is part of its strategy to reduce unemployment. MSE registration is carried out by the Ministry of Urban Development and Construction and is considered to be relatively straightforward with low barriers to entry. The MSE classification does carry with it certain limits to capital and human resources, such as a maximum of 30 employees. However, in the overall scheme of the government’s national drive to grow the economy and provide more jobs, larger businesses and industrial interests (which have the capacity to employ a greater number of people) often take precedence over smaller enterprises, such as MSEs and start-ups.   

The challenges of starting a new business in the country are likely impacting entrepreneurs in many sectors and are certainly having a major effect on businesses serving the WASH sector. Encouraging constructive reforms to streamline the registration process and to lower barriers to entry will help expand the ability of the private sector to offer solutions to a wide range of consumer needs related to household and institutional sanitation facilities, water supply and water treatment, and many other aspects of WASH. Some of the ways this can be accomplished are summarized below.

  • Review and sensibly reform start-up capital investment requirements to encourage more rapid growth of the WASH market by incentivising foreign business investment and foreign/domestic partnerships in the WASH sector.
  • Promote streamlining and fast-tracking of the product certification process for MSEs and especially for WASH manufacturing enterprises, including coordination and harmonisation between the Ethiopian Food and Drug Authority and the Ethiopian Conformity Assessment Enterprise.
  • Streamline business licensing and financial auditing processes, especially for enterprises that demonstrate poverty reduction, public health, environmental, or other social objective. Consider establishing a separate classification for such businesses (as social enterprises) to help grow this sector of the economy.  Engage with Social Enterprise Ethiopia and other relevant groups to help promote this.
  • Encourage Social Enterprise Ethiopia or other business groups to offer support for SEs to efficiently navigate and comply with regulatory requirements, including those which are potentially technically complex, such as product certification and ESIAs.
  • Strengthen the IGA mechanism for registered NGOs, including providing tax and other relevant forms of relief to encourage greater use of this option by WASH-focused non-profit organisations.
  • Review policies focused on reducing unemployment and encourage expansion of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and other platforms, which can train young people to join or start WASH-related businesses.
  • Advocate with the Ethiopian Environment, Forest, and Climate Change Commission to promote streamlined requirements and fast-tracking of ESIAs for socially oriented businesses focused on extending critical services to lower-income populations, including WASH products and services.
  • Seek corporate engagement, including foreign corporate interests, in promoting private sector engagement in the WASH sector in Ethiopia. This could be through direct advocacy with government or possibly by establishing a formal public-private partnership initiative. Enlist the support of banking and finance institutions, as well as Ethiopian business groups, to help promote the goals of such an initiative.

Sanitation innovation through user-centred design in Ethiopia

28 September 2021 at 17:45

A workshop delivers prototypes of more affordable sanitation products that meet the needs of lower income households in Lowland Ethiopia.

Written by: Ayatam Simeneh, Dagim Demirew and Mesfin H/Mariam

The Somali region of eastern Ethiopia, a lowland area, poses unique sanitation market development challenges. The region significantly outperforms the country as a whole in access to improved sanitation at 26 percent of households (EDHS 2019) versus seven percent nationally (JMP 2019).  By contrast, Somali households practise open defecation at persistently higher than national rates at 49 percent versus 32 percent, respectively.   

According to our business development team in the Somali region, sanitation product offerings in the local market are limited mostly to full toilet construction options.  These products are expensive, ranging from 7,000 to 15,000 Ethiopian birr (ETB) each, so businesses cater to the wealthiest households, whose strong demand results in the higher-than-national improved sanitation rate.  On the other end of the wealth spectrum, in contrast with other regions, households with no toilet tend to reject self-construction options (e.g., through CLTSH) and aspire to a higher standard of sanitation facility.  Unfortunately, businesses fail to offer products that meet this demand, which is driven by local culture.  

To explore more about the reasons behind the different contexts in the Somali region and to offer some solutions, the USAID Transform WASH team led a workshop using user-centred design principles to come up with more affordable sanitation products that meet the needs of lower income households.  The workshop gathered numerous community members selected for their local knowledge, expertise, and experience. Participants came from all parts of the Somali region and included: community members; masons; professionals from technical, vocational, and educational training (TVET) institutes, including construction workers and wood and metal works instructors; health extension workers, and health officials.   

User-centred design workshops consist of three major steps: observation, ideation, and prototyping.  To prepare the participants, workshop facilitators started with an interactive orientation, which included “speed-dating,” so participants could get to know each other, and a simple co-design exercise in which participants designed a shoe for one of the facilitators. These activities engaged the participants and helped get them into the “design mindset.”  The team then proceeded to core activities, beginning with observation. 

Observation Phase: Facilitators initiated a discussion about the participants’ general sanitation situation and regional context. They then delved deeper into the status of household sanitation.  To guide their observations and perspectives, facilitators presented them with demographic, socioeconomic and geographic data, and information about existing market opportunities and barriers.

Participants presenting discussion results from the observation phase

Participants presenting discussion results from the observation phase

Ideation:  In this phase, participants began to formulate concrete ideas and designs for affordable sanitation products. Participants were divided into groups that mixed professions and backgrounds. Each group formulated and presented their initial design ideas, shaped by traditional, cultural, and religious contexts.  The other groups provided feedback to improve ideas and guide the presenters toward their stated objectives. Privacy, easy cleaning, and water availability were the most common and important issues discussed.  Masons, who have ample experience constructing toilets, raised issues related to soil type and ventilation as critical aspects of toilet design.  Community members also suggested raising footrests to prevent splashing and emphasised the importance of shade from the sun.

Throughout the feedback session, brainstorming continued, ideas grew clearer, and more mature opinions started to form. At this stage, participants began to express their ideas more easily, including with drawings. As part of the activity, participants created sketch models of their designs using paper, glue, and other modelling materials. Each group presented their sketch model to the rest of the participants, who offered another round of feedback and reflections on affordability, ventilation, and other important features.  

Sketch model development Sketch model development

Sketch model development

Prototyping: In this phase, the groups agreed on sketches that they all deemed promising and started creating practical prototypes. They listed material needs to construct their products and assessed the local availability of the materials by estimating revised costs of the toilet which ranged from ETB 5,000 to 10,000. Then each group built a prototype, including the following models:    

Direct pit latrine design - the first team designed a direct pit toilet with a corrugated iron sheet superstructure for the Degabur woreda context. Soil collapse is not a problem in this area, so the group developed a latrine type in which the seat floor was located directly over the septic tank. 

Offset pit latrine design with wood - the Gursum area of the Somali region is prone to soil collapse. Therefore, the second team designed an offset pit latrine design, which would stabilise the area around the toilet. The design also included a wooden superstructure to increase affordability as inexpensive wood is available locally.  

Offset pit latrine design with sheet metal superstructure - the third team developed a toilet with a metal sheet superstructure for the Ararso woreda. This toilet differed from the offset latrine of the Gursum team as it used a metal superstructure rather than wood because of customer preferences in that area.

Direct pit and offset latrine prototypes Direct pit and offset latrine prototypes

Direct pit and offset latrine prototypes

Once the prototypes were completed, the teams tested the designs by presenting them in a nearby rural community. The design teams went from house to house explaining the design concepts and collecting feedback, which was subsequently incorporated into the product designs.  

The final step in the process was to refine the designs so that working prototypes could be constructed in the field.  Building and installing the prototypes will advance the training of masons, enable more testing with households, and help the team develop product and service delivery models.  Ultimately, if product prototypes are successful, they will be produced at scale and made available locally, addressing customer needs and meeting demand for improved sanitation in the Somali region.

Market-based sanitation in the Ethiopian context

23 August 2021 at 13:03
By: tsegaye

Sanitation based marketing

Some key changes in the enabling environment could lead to significant growth in the sanitation market.

Ethiopia is working to address sanitation and hygiene challenges through market-based sanitation. The stakes are high as poor sanitation and hygiene are leading causes of illness. According to the second Health Sector Transformation Plan of Ethiopia, the country aims to drastically reduce sanitation-related illnesses by increasing the proportion of households with access to a basic sanitation service from 20% in 2019 to 60% in 2025. Ethiopia plans to achieve these goals through market-based sanitation, a development approach in which a sustainable marketplace provides reliable sanitation goods and services to consumers and creates viable business opportunities for suppliers.

These efforts have already begun in earnest. The country’s Market-Based Sanitation Implementation Guideline, which was developed by the Federal Ministry of Health in collaboration with development partners, provides a framework for building and expanding market-based sanitation.

What is Market-Based Sanitation?

As stated in the Market-Based Sanitation Implementation Guideline, ‘’Market-based sanitation is a sanitation market whereby the household fully pays at once or through installments to the supplier for the preferred/desired basic sanitation and hygiene products and/or services.’’ Because the market will not work without attractive and profitable business opportunities for suppliers, creating a favourable environment for private-sector enterprises and consumers to conduct business through supportive regulations and policies is a critically important piece to implementing market-based sanitation. This is known as the “enabling environment”.


According to USAID Transform WASH research conducted on Ethiopia’s WASH business climate, businesses offering sanitation products and services in the country face a multitude of challenges resulting from a poor enabling environment. These include access to foreign exchange, tax and tariff rates, intellectual property protection, business registration, and start-up requirements, import challenges, uncertain demand, and business and consumer financing. Lack of access to foreign exchange impedes importation of sanitation products and manufacturing inputs while taxes and tariffs levied on sanitation products increase the price of sanitation products and services, reducing affordability and customer willingness to pay.  Challenges related to intellectual property rights, business start-up requirements, business registration, and uncertain demand discourage emerging businesses. Transform WASH's study examining the introduction of new sanitation products into the Ethiopian market indicated that bringing innovative plastic sanitation products to the local market took nine months longer than was originally planned. Bureaucratic hurdles related to importation, customs, logistics, high and confusing duties, and risk-averse investment decisions of corporate leads created delays and reduced profitability.

Additionally, Transform WASH's study on the assessment of sanitation financing options for enterprises and households shows that local enterprises and consumers are facing financing challenges. Businesses that may wish to offer sanitation products and services lack the capital to purchase raw materials in bulk to use for the production process and marketing tasks. Loan products are hard to access because they carry high-interest rates, or there are no sanitation-focused financial products at all.

Suggested Solutions

Some key changes in the enabling environment could lead to significant growth in the sanitation market.

To make sanitation products and services affordable to all, the government of Ethiopia should exempt or reduce taxes and tariffs levied on sanitation products. Higher prices lower demand, placing additional economic burdens on poor households and reducing the profitability of businesses who wish to sell sanitation products.

Registering sanitation products as essential goods and including them in the priority items list would help solve challenges related to the scarcity of foreign exchange as such transactions receive priority status by sector and by good.

Building a favourable climate for emerging businesses by easing bureaucratic hurdles would enhance growth. There should be an environment in which businesses face fewer impending regulations and sluggish processes for business set-up.

Promoting household understanding of the value of sanitation products and why they should prioritise the improvement of their facilities will create demand for nearby products and services. To do this, Transform WASH experience and research shows that engaging health extension workers and women development army leaders in such promotion will yield positive results along with enhancing business marketing and sales skills.

Expanding financing options is critical for market-based sanitation as small businesses need more and better loan products to blossom. Providing sanitation-focused loans for businesses would enable them to produce, sell, and distribute sanitation products and services at a much greater scale.  Also, strengthening microfinance institutions and village saving and credit associations that provide sanitation loans to consumers would enhance the purchasing power of households. In addressing the poorest customers, smart and targeted subsidies will help address the biggest affordability challenges.

At a fundamental level, establishing a conducive climate for market-based sanitation, working on improving financing restrictions for the enterprises and households, lessening bureaucratic hiccups, and creating demand will change the game and allow Ethiopia to meet its goals. In improving financing restrictions, financial institutions and the regulatory body needs to understand the value of providing finance for market-based sanitation and improve their directives and policy.

About Transform WASH
USAID Transform WASH aims to improve water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) outcomes in Ethiopia by increasing market access to and sustained use of a broader spectrum of affordable WASH products and services, with a substantial focus on sanitation.

Transform WASH achieves this by transforming the market for low-cost quality WASH products and services: stimulating demand at the community level, strengthening supply chains, and improving the enabling environment for a vibrant private market.

USAID Transform WASH is a USAID-funded activity implemented by PSI in collaboration with SNV, Plan International, and IRC WASH. The consortium is working closely with government agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Electricity, the One WASH National Program, and regional and sub-regional governments.


Scaling up sanitation and hygiene for all in Kabarole

23 August 2021 at 11:49

Home improvement campaigns for sanitation and hygiene assessed in 49 villages in Mugusu and Kasenda sub-counties in Uganda.

A family demonstrates to the monitoring team how they practise handwashing at home using a tippy tap

A family demonstrates to the monitoring team how they practise handwashing at home using a tippy tap

Access to safe sanitation and a clean hygienic environment are fundamental human rights that everyone should enjoy. Kabarole District has set targets to deliver water sanitation and hygiene services to every person, leaving no one behind. Kabarole’s WASH vision commits that by 2030, the district will be 100% open defecation free (ODF), with 72% of the population enjoying basic and 28% safely managed sanitation services.

But sanitation and hygiene are not the only service mandates that the district has. That means that the conditional grant from central government is not nearly enough to reach everyone at once. The district leadership has strategised to concentrate resources in selected underserved sub-counties, making sure that every village and home is served.

Thus, in 2020, IRC made a collaborative commitment to Kabarole District Local Government to support sanitation and home improvement campaigns in two sub-counties per year.  The core purpose of the campaign is to create awareness and inspire change from the grassroots up, by empowering households to install and maintain good sanitation and hygiene facilities, and gradually eliminate open defecation in the entire district.

This year, the sanitation improvement campaign has concentrated on Mugusu and Kasenda sub-counties reaching 49 villages with various activities including community engagement meetings, a baseline survey, home visits and education, piloting of the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) tools, celebration of the 2021 Sanitation Week and rewarding homes that depicted outstanding standards of sanitation and hygiene. 

The ideal home: sanitation and hygiene standards in rural Kabarole

Every household must have a sanitation facility that is in good condition and ensures privacy; have hand washing facilities with clean water and soap, bath shelters, proper garbage disposal, proper water chain management and zero tolerance for open defecation (Uganda Public Health Act CAP 269 (194)).

In Mugusu and Kasenda, most people live in houses built with mud and sticks (semi-permanent, or bricks and mortar (permanent)) with basic sanitary requirements, namely a kitchen and a traditional pit latrine. Before the campaign, only a few homes had a designated bath shelter, 47.5% in Kasenda and 62.6% in Mugusu. Utensil racks with levels for washing and drying were not a priority in many homes; nor were rubbish pits for domestic waste. Even fewer were homes that had hand washing facilities with soap, 32.9% in Kasenda and 37% in Mugusu, and safe water chain management 40.7% in Kasenda and 52.3% in Mugusu.

The change is happening, one home at a time

A monitoring exercise done approximately three months after the campaign revealed that two villages, Magunga and Karwoma in Mugusu Sub-county had recently been declared open defecation free by the District Inspectorate team while 15 more villages had 89% of their households with no evidence of OD. Those which did not have latrines before the intervention were found with new or in the process of excavating pits for latrines. Others had improved from traditional to ventilated improved pits (VIPs) or installed SatoPans and Ecosan toilets to scale-up cleanliness and hygiene.

Household toilet inspection


“After attending the sanitation improvement campaign that was conducted in this village, I committed myself to improve my latrine. I decided to put in a SatoPan. My latrine is now free from the smell and flies. I have inspired other community members to replicate my example of using locally available materials.”- Mr. Darius Nasasira, a community member in Kasenda.

Leading by example

Community leaders including those who represent the people on the lower local councils, as well as those who serve in technical capacity such as the secretary for health and the Village Health Teams (VHT), are expected to have and maintain exemplary homesteads. That means that during the home visits, their homes are also assessed, and model homes awarded with certificates. Model homes not only inspire other homesteads to achieve the ideal standard, but they also constitute a good proportion of households in the village, thus raising the standard of the sub-county closer to the ideal sanitation and hygiene situation.

Lessons learnt

PHAST in actionRating yourself on sanitation ladder

PHAST in action: Community mapping of sanitation conditions (L) and a participant in the training rates her home on the sanitation ladder (R).

Behaviour change is a laborious process and requires time. The impact of a sanitation campaign may not be visible in only three months.

Although resources for constructing most sanitary facilities are within easy reach, some community members remain adamant. Local leaders have resorted to enforcement through police arrests of those who do not comply to the basic requirements of sanitation and hygiene. But this has not significantly contributed to the desired behavioural change. In some cases, because people have acted in fear of the law, the full installation, maintenance and use of ideal sanitary facilities remains below minimum.

The holistic campaign offers a more sustainable approach. The PHAST tools involve the whole community beyond the Health Assistants, allowing them to learn and adopt solutions as their own. Promoting community led total sanitation (CLTS) using tools such as “the walk of shame” and the household cluster approach (UMOJA plus) that embraces togetherness to promote inclusive participation, were found to better influence behaviour change.

Kabarole District and IRC together with other actors such as Amref which is involved in sanitation marketing can consolidate the gains in the same sub-counties by extending the campaign for longer periods. Importantly, learning and knowledge sharing should not be limited to the campaign timelines. For example, training Environment Health Workers and VHTs on new technologies such as installation of SatoPans should continue.

Such collaborative campaigns are an opportunity for civil society to lobby policy makers to put in place guidelines and by-laws that support the technical teams to ensure strict adherence to minimum standards of sanitation and hygiene.  Existing guidelines should be improved to include missing aspects, such as menstrual hygiene management and climate change at household level.

Every single homestead that transforms to the model sanitation and hygiene standards is one step towards building a critical mass of individuals that will propel communities, villages, sub-counties and ultimately the district closer to full and safe access for all.

National market based sanitation training manual

18 August 2021 at 13:49

Guidance and tools for designing, developing, planning, implementing and monitoring and evaluation of a market-based sanitation approach and related sanitation product & service delivery mechanisms.

This training manual is for WASH sector staff, policy makers and sanitation sector specialists in Ethiopia. It provides guidance and tools for designing, developing, planning, implementing and monitoring and evaluation of a market-based sanitation approach and related sanitation product & service delivery mechanisms.

The training manual comprises seven interrelated modules: (1) Introduction and background; (2) Pillars of the market-based sanitation (MBS) approach; (3) Market development; (4) Marketable sanitation technology options; (5) Social and behavioral communication (SBCC) for sanitary marketing; (6) Required skills for a WASH market development approach; and (7) Monitoring and evaluation of WASH market development.

Scaling-up sanitation and hygiene in Kabarole : a monitoring report of the home improvement campaigns in Mugusu and Kasenda Sub-counties, June-July 2021

17 August 2021 at 09:30

In February and March 2021, home improvement campaigns were conducted in 49 villages of Mugusu and Kasenda sub-counties, and a monitoring exercise carried out in June-July to assess the levels of impact registered by the intervention.

Kabarole District Local Government and IRC have a collaborative commitment to improve WASH in two sub-counties per year, an initiative that started in 2020. Specifically focusing on SDG 6.2 target on sanitation and hygiene, intensive campaigns are carried out in two select sub-counties reaching every village and household with information on and skills to maintain good standards of sanitation and hygiene in their homes. Thus, in February and March 2021 the home improvement campaigns were conducted in 49 villages of Mugusu and Kasenda sub-counties, and a monitoring exercise carried out in June-July to assess the levels of impact registered by the intervention.

Getting water to Kabende subcounty, Uganda

22 July 2021 at 16:13

Challenges and successes of a public private partnership between Kabarole District Local Government, National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) and IRC Uganda.

In 2019, IRC Uganda facilitated a public private partnership between Kabarole District Local Government, National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) and IRC, to extend a piped water system from Kijura Town Council to supply Kabende sub county beyond the semi-urban centre to the rural areas. Through a series of interviews with service providers, users, local leadership and the district technical team, we share some of the challenges and successes the partners have experienced in the work they have done.

Life-cycle cost analysis for Splash school interventions in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Update 2021

20 July 2021 at 13:52
By: Naafs

The WISE project is set to provide safe water, good sanitation, and healthy hygiene to all the schools in Addis Ababa. To put these services in place, both AAEB and SPLASH are investing considerable amounts of money. Hand washing stations, drinking water filters, latrine blocks are being built and hygiene behaviour change campaigns rolled out. But how much does it cost to keep these running once the project is over? Who will finance these operational costs?

IRC WASH did a study in 2019 to look at all the different costs (using the so-called – Life-Cycle Cost Approach- LCCA) and has now updated it for 2021. This has provided the following insights:

  • The WISE project has adapted since 2019 and has been raising the provided service levels. Particularly by reducing intermittent water, by including faecal sludge aspects, and by broadening hygiene training with janitors. This has led to an increase in CapEx cost per student from ETB 886 to ETB 3103. The Main CapEx cost is sanitation (63%) and therefore improving costs effectiveness of sanitation should have priority.
  • The annual recurrent expenditure is ETB 256 per student per year, of which ETB 184 (71%) is covered by Taxes (School budgets), 6% by Tariffs (parents paying for soap), and ETB 57 by Transfers (Splash mainly on support costs and operation costs for water).
  • To achieve good quality basic service levels ETB 595 per student per year on recurrent cost is needed. This gives a current finance gap of ETB 338, which is mainly toilet paper for students, which arguably should be covered by Tariffs (parents or other sources of income).

The key to securing funds for sustainable funding for WASH is working with sub-city and woreda staff on the allocation of the available budget. The annual recurrent expenditure of ETB 184 per student per year should be raised to ETB 240 to remove dependency on SPLASH funds for annual recurrent costs. This is respectively 6% and 4% of primary and secondary school fund allocation.

Guidance for African governments on sanitation policy

9 July 2021 at 17:24
By: Grift

Interview with Alana Potter, co-drafter of the Africa Sanitation Policy Guidelines.

  Stream of water pouring into children’s hands in southern Burkina Faso. Photo: Jadwiga Figula / Getty Images.

Stream of water pouring into children's hands in southern Burkina Faso. Photo: Jadwiga Figula / Getty Images

"Good policy with political ownership and leadership is the lynchpin and the lodestar of governance; of an enabling environment", says Alana Potter, a former IRC staff member and associate, now working as a Senior Policy Analyst at WaterAid.

The Ngor Declaration on Sanitation and Hygiene defines clear, achievable commitments intended to deliver dignity and equity in sanitation and hygiene in Africa by 2030. The 2015 Ngor Declaration is a successor to the eThekwini Declaration (2008), and an assessment of the progress in honouring the commitments of both declarations over the last decade, it reveals a strong predication of an enabling environment as the lynchpin for progress. Good policy with political ownership and leadership were affirmed as key to creating an enabling environment necessary to meet sanitation and hygiene commitments.

The African Sanitation Policy Guidelines (ASPG) is an initiative of the African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW), based on research on Africa’s sanitation and hygiene policies and legislation in 2019. The study reveals gaps in laws and policies, which negatively impact sanitation service delivery, foster inequalities in sanitation service delivery and complicate financial resource allocation. The ASPG provides African governments guidance on the policy development process, vision, objectives and principles and addresses the hygiene and sanitation behaviour change; institutional arrangements; regulation; capacity development; funding, and monitoring, evaluation, and reviews elements of a clear and comprehensive sanitation policy to guide national sanitation and hygiene improvements. The Guidelines provide advice on the process and suggested contents of a sanitation policy for policy makers in national and subnational governments and other stakeholders involved in supporting policy reform initiatives and developing implementation strategies. 

Implementing the ASPG guidelines offers African governments the opportunity to develop a policy and an implementation plan that aligns efforts and to mobilise the required resources and investments. It provides a tool to galvanise and communicate in order to generate political support and increase prioritisation of sanitation and hygiene in the public and private sector.

Evidence affirms that for every 1 dollar spent on sanitation, countries can save up to 5 dollars in healthcare and lost income from tourism. By developing and implementing sanitation policies, governments will therefore build their economies and strengthen public and environmental health.

How the guidelines will help the WASH sector in Africa as it responds to COVID-19

The ASPG guidelines can help governments build the institutional strength and public trust required to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic, by developing policies, plans and budgets, leading multi-stakeholder processes, and prioritising and allocating the resources needed to meet their human rights and public health obligations. Policy clarity now will build the resilience needed to tackle future global health and climate crises.

How can the WASH sector and IRC help to implement these guidelines?

WASH sector practitioners, partners and governments should popularise these guidelines far and wide, use them, adapt them, pilot them, and suggest improvements. In addition, IRC could create WASH academy learning modules from them.

Process of developing these guidelines, virtually

After the country consultations, the drafting team engaged twice face-to-face before lockdown and conceptualised the ASPG. The structure of the different sections and of the overall document went through many iterations, as this kind of work does. From there they worked on different sections and commented on each other’s work. The ASPG went through 5 or 6 rounds of detailed comment and review with different stakeholder groups because the drafters felt that the more sector stakeholders at all levels engaged with the material, the more ownership they would have, and the better the product would be. All five drafters discussed each comment in the entire document, online, together, in each of these reviews. The drafter leading a particular section got to make the call on how to address the comment and feedback and everyone kept track in an Excel document. Dr Amaka Godfrey, as the Lead Consultant, managed an extremely thorough and rigorous process. We had excellent editorial assistance from IRC board member Clarissa Brocklehurst. Finally, each drafter reviewed the entire Guideline. It took years, a lot of updated project plans, and at least one budget revision!

Additional information is available in the useful links and resources below.

Interview by Vera van der Grift and review by Cor Dietvorst and Tettje van Daalen

African Sanitation Policy Guidelines to provide focus on sanitation

5 July 2021 at 14:17

Toilets in Ethiopia

The African Sanitation Policy Guidelines will be of great value to Ethiopia as the country currently does not have an official policy.

IRC WASH Ethiopia staff recently attended the launching of the African Sanitation Policy Guidelines (ASPG) by the African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW). According to AMCOW, “the ASPG… are designed to provide guidance to African governments on the review, revision, and development of sanitation policies and strategies for their implementation.” IRC WASH Ethiopia has supported the development process at the invitation of the Ministry of Health, attending and providing input at a stakeholder consultation meeting and participating in a virtual consultation on the document.

The guidelines will be valuable to Ethiopia as the country does not currently have an official sanitation policy. It is hoped that these guidelines will be an entry point for developing a national framework, help improve coordination nationally, better track progress, and allow for comparisons regionally. Overall, progress in sanitation has not been as successful as water and it is hoped these guidelines refocus and re-energise stakeholders to engage in improving sanitation in Ethiopia.

IRC WASH Ethiopia looks forward to engaging with the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Water, Irrigation, and Energy and other local partners to build upon the momentum these guidelines provide and give sanitation the attention it deserves. IRC WASH can also capitalise by continuing to advocate for sanitation financing, private sector engagement (with particular emphasis on women entrepreneurs), and taxation related to sanitation products

Involvement of IRC Ethiopia
  • Invited to participate by the Ministry of Health. The Ministry facilitated the stakeholder meeting. IRC WASH Ethiopia participated and provided input.
  • IRC WASH Ethiopia participated in discussion in online forums.
  • Issues have been raised in Africa sub meetings in which IRC staff and associates participated.
  • The launch of the guidelines was attended by IRC staff.
  • IRC WASH is active in AMCOW (secretariat under the African Union responsible for sanitation) (in AfriSan meetings, subcommittees).
How it impacts Ethiopia
  • No sanitation policy in Ethiopia so this will help shape one.
  • Long overdue to have clear policy and guidance.
  • Many activities but difficult to enforce across the country.
  • Demands all states to embrace and have commitment based on this framework.
  • Hope to improve coordination in the country for sanitation.
  • Entry point for more national frameworks, better systems, track changes through time.
  • Help compare performance regionally.
How it impacts IRC WASH
  • Know the gap in WASH, but sanitation is not a focus.
  • Advantage – momentum and reason to engage with government on sanitation.
  • Helpful to WASH actors to catalyse them to do more in sanitation.
  • Achieved national target for water but not sanitation in the past, this will continue to give more focus and remotivate actors.
  • Ministry of Health is mandated. Sanitation sits in different government offices, personnel, etc. No activity by government to make people aware. Awareness and priority are missing and this can help enforce standards.
  • Opportunity for more partnerships.

This article is based on an interview with Michael Abera.

Social and behavior change communication - participants' manual

28 June 2021 at 15:37

This manual is for planners, implementers and other stakeholders in the WASH sector working on social mobilisation and behaviour change communication activities in Ethiopia.

This training manual is developed to capacitate health professionals mainly health extension workers working with communities to understand Social Behavior Change (SBC) and apply the principles of SBCC in changing community’s behaviors on WASH behaviors such as Sanitation (safe disposal of human faeces) Hygiene (proper hand washing) and Water (safe handling of drinking water).

The manual comprises four major units; the first unit is about Social Behavior Change Communication (SBCC) to give an insight to participants on the concepts of SBC and basic elements they need to consider in reaching out to households in particular and the community in general to bring the desired change on various health behaviors in addition to WASH.

The second unit has basic elements of WASH concepts, importance of interventions, WASH doable actions or key messages and introduction of optional WASH products and services with a focus on those low cost and high-quality products that USAID TWASH promotes.

The third unit is about practical WASH household counselling visit where participants will be familiarized with communication materials (flipchart) they will be using while conducting household visits, and application of household visits which are the most important part of the session with the aim of developing the counselling skills of participants. Participants will make a pair and practice counselling target groups with the use of the flip chart.

The fourth and the final unit is explaining the monitoring and evaluation activities with a focus on monitoring tools such as proper documentation and reporting, supervision and review meetings. In this unit standard data collection and reporting formats will be introduced and distributed to participants.

Finally participants will prepare a kebele level plan and submit it to the facilitators on which their subsequent community mobilization and other activities would be monitored.

Watershed annual report 2020 (including 2016-2020)

28 June 2021 at 15:14
By: Grift

This annual report 2016-2020 presents the work the Watershed empowering citizens programme has done with its partners and its achievements since its initiation in 2016.

This annual report 2016-2020 presents the work the Watershed empowering citizens programme has done with its partners and its achievements since its initiation in 2016.

The Watershed Annual Report 2020 is a public document that is made available for information, transparency and accountability reasons. It was prepared by IRC, Akvo, Wetlands International and Simavi on request of the Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS) of The Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Content is based on the annual reports submitted by all work packages from Kenya, Uganda, Ghana, Mali, Bangladesh, India, International and The Netherlands.

Social behavior change strategy

28 June 2021 at 12:06

This strategy is developed to guide design and implementation of evidence based social behavior change interventions for promoting recommended WASH behaviors to create demand for products and services at household and community level for the USAID Transform WASH project in Ethiopia.

The USAID Transform WASH Activity envisions a thriving WASH market in Ethiopia driven by increased consumer demand for and use of affordable products and services, delivered through successful business models and supported by the Government of Ethiopia.

This behavior change communication (BCC) strategy is intended to suggest evidence-based behavioral change and demand creation approaches and to guide WASH behavior change intervention efforts implemented mainly by Plan International and synergized with the USAID Transform WASH Activity’s consortium organizations. This strategy is informed from a desk review of WASH-related policy, strategy, and program documents and survey reports; a review of WASH-related social behavior change communication (SBCC) material mapping; and a critical review of existing tools from the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH), and stakeholder and partner consultation/discussion at national, regional, zonal, and woreda levels.

The document comprises the analysis involved in identifying the major WASH behaviors to focus on, the key audiences, major barriers, and behavioral determinants that motivate target groups to develop sustained behavior change toward WASH practices, as well as the results the project activities need to achieve along with suggested interventions.

Furthermore, the social behavior change (SBC) strategy is expected to improve the effectiveness of WASH service delivery by addressing the demand/user side gaps by creating awareness, demand, and acceptability for the WASH products and services provided through community-based approaches. The strategy will address the social support and norm to improve WASH behaviors in the project intervention areas through a multi-level approach that includes the harmonization of interpersonal communication, community mobilization, and advocacy that helps the project to achieve its objectives.

Ethiopian national market-based sanitation implementation guideline

22 June 2021 at 11:14

The Ethiopian Ministry of Health, in collaboration with non-governmental partners among them IRC Ethiopia, developed the National Market-Based Sanitation Implementation Guideline.

This revised guideline aims to facilitate development of sustainable sanitation and hygiene markets whereby households have access to broader range of quality, affordable and preferred basic sanitation and hygiene products and/or services from private-sector suppliers at accessible delivery outlets. The guideline is also designed to support accelerated implementation of market-based sanitation interventions on a wider scale in the regions, districts and ensure sectoral accountability at all levels in Ethiopia.

Thus, this implementation guideline describes different types of basic sanitation and hygiene products and services that are expected to be offered by interested enterprises/entrepreneurs. It also provides step-by-step guidance on sanitation market development, including conducting formative research and product supply chain analysis to inform local businesses on the benefits of developing and standardizing sanitation products and service delivery, setting of affordable yet profit-making prices, promotion/demand creation, distribution, and sales of products and services to consumers. In addition, the guideline describes important enabling environment considerations that are vital for smooth implementation of market-based sanitation interventions with key performance indicators to monitor implementation.

Striving to implement robust market-based sanitation in Ethiopia

21 June 2021 at 09:43

Ethiopia's Ministry of Health has, together with partners, developed a national market-based sanitation training manual to properly implement the guideline on the same topic.

This article is written by: Abireham Misganaw, Federal Ministry of Health

The implementation guideline launched during world toilet day celebration (photo by: Tsegaye Yeshiwas)

The implementation guideline launched during world toilet day celebration (photo by: Tsegaye Yeshiwas)

The Ethiopian Ministry of Health, in collaboration with non-governmental partners, recently developed and launched the National Market-Based Sanitation Implementation Guideline. According to Dr. Dereje Duguma, State Minister of the Ministry of Health, ‘’The guideline aims to facilitate the development of sustainable sanitation and hygiene markets whereby households have access to a broader range of quality, affordable and preferred basic sanitation and hygiene products and services from private-sector suppliers at accessible delivery outlets.’’

The guideline, the first major revision of the National Sanitation Marketing Guideline published in 2013, was launched on November 19, 2020 during World Toilet Day events. To properly implement the national market-based sanitation guideline, the ministry and its partners also developed the national market-based sanitation training manual.

Since November 19, 2020, the Ministry and the USAID Transform WASH project have been delivering a series of training sessions for trainers from 30 regional and other WASH sector organisations as part of their support for a market-based approach to sanitation. So far, a total of 114 woredas (districts) have received training (24 in the Amhara region, 13 in the Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples region (SNNPR), 45 in the Oromia, 10 in Somali, eight in Sidama, four in the Gambela, six in Benishangul Gumuz, and four in Dire Dawa municipality).

86 districts that received training were awarded 151,500 birr to build sanitation centres. Previously, as part of on-going support for market-based sanitation, an additional 50 districts received financial support for market-based sanitation.  48 of them trained young entrepreneurs, provided working sites, and launched 65 sanitation marketing centres.

The Ministry of Health is planning to strengthen market-based sanitation by:

  • reinforcing market-based sanitation training;
  • strengthening sanitation market centres;
  • advocating and working with financial institutions to provide sanitation services for low- and middle-income households;
  • providing a subsidy protocol for poor households;
  • developing a sanitation, hygiene, and environmental health policy; and
  • conducting a study on approaches of sanitation and hygiene practice.

In the second Health Sector Transformation Plan, the Ministry of Health aims to increase the proportion of households with access to basic sanitation services from 20% in 2019 to 60% in 2025, through market-based hygiene, sanitation and environmental health facilities and an inclusive market-based approach.

Renforcement des systèmes WASH : les bases

11 June 2021 at 14:58

Renfercement des systemes WASH

Pourquoi avons-nous besoin de renforcer les systèmes WASH ?

L'accès à l'eau, à l'assainissement et à l'hygiène constitue le fondement même d'une vie saine et digne. Il est essentiel pour améliorer la santé, l'éducation et les moyens de subsistance. Pourtant, dans le monde, 2,1 milliards de personnes n'ont pas accès à l'eau potable et 4,5 milliards de personnes n'ont pas accès à l'assainissement.

Pour garantir la pérennité des services WASH, il faut une réflexion globale et la mise en place de systèmes solides. Désormais, grâce aux cours en ligne gratuits de la WASH Systems Academy, chacun peut apprendre les bases de la fourniture de services d'eau et d'assainissement résilients et prendre part au changement nécessaire pour ne laisser personne de côté. Construisons ensemble des systèmes WASH solides.

Renforcement des systèmes WASH : les bases

Vous voulez tout savoir sur le renforcement des systèmes WASH ? Rejoignez le cours gratuit "Renforcement des systèmes WASH : les bases".

La WASH Systems Academy est une plateforme interactive développée pour aider les professionnels du secteur WASH à appliquer une approche de renforcement des systèmes WASH. Si vous êtes en début de carrière ou si vous êtes un expert senior du secteur WASH qui souhaite comprendre ce qu'est une approche de renforcement des systèmes et comment vous pouvez l'intégrer dans votre travail, ce cours en ligne gratuit est fait pour vous. Les systèmes WASH forts ne peuvent être construits qu'ensemble.

Voici comment créer votre compte

Objectifs du cours

Ce cours couvre les concepts de base du renforcement des systèmes WASH. Il s'agit de comprendre comment parvenir à une prestation de services WASH durable pour tous et comment fonctionner efficacement dans ce processus. Il vous aidera à comprendre l'approche du renforcement des systèmes WASH :

  • ce qu'il est
  • comment et pourquoi il a été développé
  • comment commencer à l'appliquer.

Chaque session a des objectifs d'apprentissage spécifiques qui sont décrits au début. A la fin du cours, vous aurez une bonne compréhension de l'approche de renforcement des systèmes WASH.

Aperçu des sessions

Le contenu de cette formation couvre les concepts de base du renforcement des systèmes WASH et est divisé en neuf sessions. La formation dure au minimum 16 heures et vous avez trois mois pour la terminer.

Après un an, l'accès au cours ne sera plus disponible.

Il est recommandé de suivre le cours en suivant toutes les sessions, dans l'ordre (par exemple, de la session 1 à la session 9). En cours de route, vous pourrez tester votre compréhension dans les trois tests à choix multiples et les deux quiz.

Le contenu du cours est le suivant :

  • Session 1 : Présentation de la WASH Systems Academy.
  • Session 2 : Des pompes cassées aux systèmes durables
  • Session 3 : Qu'est-ce que le renforcement des systèmes WASH ?
  • Session 4 : WASH est un service
  • Session 5 : Renforcement des systèmes d'assainissement
  • Session 6 : Promotion de l'hygiène pour le renforcement des systèmes WASH
  • Session 7 : Renforcement des systèmes WASH à l'extérieur de la maison
  • Session 8 : Ne laisser personne de côté
  • Session 9 : La feuille de route pour des services WASH durables
Travailler hors ligne

Vous pouvez télécharger les textes complets des sessions, y compris tous les exercices, via l'onglet ressources du cours. Cela vous permet de suivre une partie du cours hors ligne.

Cependant, vous devrez vous connecter à la plate-forme en ligne pour participer aux discussions du forum, télécharger les documents que vous créez et répondre aux tests à choix multiples et aux quiz.

Le certificat

Si vous réalisez toutes les activités de toutes les sessions et obtenez une note de 80 % ou plus aux trois tests à choix multiples et aux deux quiz, vous pouvez télécharger un certificat numérique de réussite à ajouter à votre profil LinkedIn ou Facebook.

Votre certificat indiquera votre note de cours ainsi que le nom figurant dans votre profil, la date d'achèvement et un code de vérification.

African Sanitation Policy Guidelines

11 June 2021 at 12:28

Guidance for African governments and other stakeholders on the review, revision, and development of sanitation policies and associated implementation strategies.

The African Sanitation Policy Guidelines (ASPG) have been developed by the Secretariat of the African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW) to provide guidance to African governments on the review, revision, and development of sanitation policies and associated implementation strategies. The Guidelines provide advice on the process and suggested contents of a sanitation policy for policy makers in national and subnational governments and other stakeholders involved in supporting policy reform initiatives and developing implementation strategies.

Part One provides the background and context of the ASPG, explaining what the document is about, why it was important to develop the Guidelines, as well as their scope and application.

Part Two provides guidance on the processes of reviewing and developing an inclusive sanitation policy, while taking into account national policy formulation procedures and local contexts. Although primarily designed to be used at the national level, this process can equally inform a subnational policy. This part details the decision-making process of developing a sanitation policy and the steps to developing a sanitation policy.

Part Three outlines the recommended core elements of a sanitation policy. It consists of eight chapters providing guidance on: vision, objectives, and principles; sanitation systems and service levels; hygiene; institutional arrangements; regulation; capacity development; funding; and monitoring and evaluation.

Part Four provides guidance for developing a policy implementation strategy for sanitation. It considers what an implementation strategy is, its importance, its development process, and it provides guidance on strategy formulation.

There are annexes with supplementary resources for the policy development process, for sanitation policy content, and for an implementation strategy; a suggested outline of a sanitation policy; sources of additional information on sanitation and hygiene, capacity development, regulation, funding, and monitoring and evaluation; a glossary; and an overview of country consultation meetings.

Celebrating women’s leadership in WASH during the COVID-19 Pandemic

28 May 2021 at 09:56

Inspirational stories about how ordinary women in India and Kenya have converted the challenges posed by COVID-19 into an opportunity to promote good hygiene practices.

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected women more than men in several ways, according to studies. They have had to take care of patients while coping with lock-downs that have restricted access to daily necessities and basic services, including water, sanitation and hygiene. At the same time, however, women have shown great strength and leader-ship in managing the uncertainties and challenges unleashed by this crisis.

To celebrate the 2021 International Women’s Day theme - #ChooseToChallenge – IRC, Water for People, WaterAid and the SuSanA India Chapter brought together stories of women’s perseverance and initiative. These illustrate how they leveraged WASH to handle the challenges posed by the pandemic. The women are from diverse backgrounds and several states of India.

The four organizations conducted a webinar in which the women shared their experiences. Additionally, many others shared their stories that have been included in this compendium. These inspirational stories depict how ordinary women have converted the challenges posed by COVID-19 into an opportunity to promote good hygiene practices. The stories are arranged alphabetically.