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Identifying barriers to inclusion in WASH : barriers faced by persons living with disabilities in accessing water, sanitation and hygiene services in Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipal Assembly, Ghana

January 12th 2021 at 09:10

In order to leave no one behind, decision makers and service providers need to examine common beliefs in measuring access to services.

This brief looks at how improved knowledge and skills in social inclusion are improving the capacity to identify excluded persons and advocate for WASH interventions to be accessible to all persons, especially for people living with a disability. It is based on a survey of 22 communities within Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality, Ghana. The survey examined the characteristics of a random sample of 40 people living with a disability, and their environmental, institutional and attitudinal barriers to inclusion. The study concludes that in order to leave no one behind, decision makers and service providers need to examine common beliefs in measuring access to services. 

Operation and maintenance opportunities in rural community sanitary complexes : thematic discussion series synthesis

December 4th 2020 at 15:58

Earlier sanitation campaigns in India showed poor demand for and use of rural community sanitary complexes (CSCs). How can India's national sanitation programme, Swachh Bharat Mission Phase II, do better?

In October-November 2020, the India Chapter of SuSanA conducted a thematic online discussion and webinar on Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Opportunities in Rural Community Sanitary Complexes (CSCs). This was to support efforts of a Task Force - comprising UNICEF India, Aga Khan Foundation, India Sanitation Coalition, Taru Leading Edge and IRC WASH - to provide inputs to India's Ministry of Jal Shakti, under Phase II of the Swachh Bharat Mission (national sanitation programme). The Mission prioritises the construction of CSCs in rural areas. Earlier sanitation campaigns in India showed poor demand for and use of rural CSCs. That's why it's important to understand the barriers and enablers and build on good practices, experiences and lessons learned. The thematic discussion and webinar covered the following topics: Factors influencing decisions to construct a CSC; Building O&M into the project life-cycle; Examples of successful O&M of rural CSCs; Lessons learned from construction and O&M of urban CSCs; Profitable PPP O&M contracts for local government; and Community engagement and behaviour change communication for O&M.

Reframing the challenges and opportunities for improved sanitation services in Eastern Africa through sustainability science

December 2nd 2020 at 09:51

Successful sanitation approaches were characterized by their adaptation to the local context, community participation, built-in mechanisms that ensure financial viability, use of technologies that are culturally appropriate and emphasis on environmental sustainability.

Sustainable sanitation services are still unavailable to most people in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) despite decades of implementing very diverse sanitation projects across the continent. Using a Sustainability Science lens, this chapter identifies through an extended literature review the drivers and shortcomings of business-as-usual sanitation approaches that tend to fail in SSA. As one of the main challenges for the success of sanitation project is the creation of an enabling environment, we attempt to identify some of the critical elements that could support the development of such an environment. Subsequently we identify characteristics and competencies conducive to breaking the cycle of failure and to developing sustainable sanitation systems. We use data from key informant interviews with sanitation implementers, focus group discussions with sanitation facility users and visits to sanitation project sites in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The sanitation approaches explored, although different, are all characterized by their adaptation to the local context, community participation, built-in mechanisms that ensure financial viability, use of technologies that are culturally appropriate and emphasis on environmental sustainability. We offer several policy and practice recommendations for the development of successful sanitation governance structures for national governments, external support agencies and project implementers. The examples discussed in this chapter show promise, but do not guarantee success, as all solutions will require several iterations to adaptate to the local context, as well as financial and governance support, to be scaled up. [author abstract]

Water For People market system development update

November 17th 2020 at 11:17

Despite reduced funding for market systems development (MSD) in sanitation, Water For People (WFP) has been able to grow and expand its approach.

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) awarded a grant to Water For People (WFP) from 2010 to June 2015 to develop a market systems development (MSD) approach for sanitation. This update looks at how the impact from that work has continued to grow and expand, despite now having less money, and quantifies that wider impact in terms of sanitation MSD growth.

As of 2020, WFP supports 59 active MSD sanitation initiatives across nine country programmes. This update highlights six MSD programmes, which have overcome three barriers : (1)  initiating businesses or income streams that can continue without WFP support; (2) the dependency on a small number of providers; and (3) the loss of control over the growth and development process.

The six highlighted programmes are: 

  1. Pit emptying and faecal sludge fuel briquette production in Kampala, Uganda
  2. Pit emptying in Blantyre, Malawi
  3. Latrine building in Bihar, India
  4. Latrine building in rural Rwanda
  5. Design innovation for affordable toilets: SaTo Pans (Uganda, Rwanda, Malawi, and Peru)
  6. Sanitation, microfinance, and loans in Latin America (Nicaragua, Honduras, Peru and Guatemala) to improve household sanitation

WFP sees increasing opportunities for its established MSD models to scale to additional geographic areas, while it has new models in the pipeline that are being tested and readied to scale up.

Pro-poor strategy for water and sanitation sector in Bangladesh

November 16th 2020 at 17:44

Hardcore poor households need to get 100% subsidies but they must also share 100% of operation and maintenance costs of water and sanitation facilities. 

The pro-poor strategy is based on four pillars: (1) an operational definition of hardcore poor households; (2) a definition of a basic minimum service level; (3 identification and organisation of the poor hou households; and (4) the development of the mechanism for administering subsidies. Other measures including micro-credit support and employment generation, and capacity building of local government institutions (LGIs) are also mentioned, as are monitoring and evaluation by LGIs. The strategy concludes that hardcore poor households need to get 100% subsidies but they must also share 100% of operation and maintenance costs of water and sanitation facilities.

Liquid waste management in SBM II : synthesis document

November 6th 2020 at 11:27

This thematic discussion examines the readiness of India's local government institutions to effectively plan and implement grey water management as part of the ambitious 2nd phase of the national Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM).

This synthesis examines the readiness of India's local government institutions to effectively plan and implement grey water management as part of the ambitious 2nd phase of the national Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM). A major focus area in SBM II is solid and liquid waste management (SLWM) in rural areas. The synthesis examines cost-effective, technically simple liquid waste management (LWM) options for different population densities, the technical skills needed to make and maintain these structures and model LWM plans for villages that have populations of less and more than 5,000. It draws from a thematic discussion and webinar on LWM hosted by the India Chapter of SuSanA in August 2020.


Good sanitation practices in Bongo District, Ghana

October 29th 2020 at 10:37

Video on the improvements taking place around sanitation and hygiene in Bongo District, Ghana.

Open defecation was still rife in 2015 in Bongo District. Eight out of ten people were practising open defecation. The District Assembly together with WaterAid Ghana and partners took action to change this. By 2020 the district was showing strong progress thanks to sensitisation and triggering. 

Asoloko was one of the communities that started adopting new practices. The schools, health centres and public spaces were also involved in the process. Apart from toilet use, handwashing was a main component of the sensitisation. The Asoloko primary school was doing so well that they were awarded a prize and were given soap for the whole school. Foe Community Health and Planning Services now has very clean and smart toilets for their staff and patients. Volunteers clean the toilets regularly and the community is made aware of the importance of cleanliness. 

In the heart of Bongo Soe is a market site which is being provided with a suite of toilets. Users will have to pay a small fee to use the toilet which one of the stallholders will collect. She will also make sure the toilets are kept clean. Getting toilets in all the markets is a priority for the district. For Bongo District Assembly and partners, it is crucial to sustain the gains that they have made.

The National Development Planning Commission (NDPC) has collected together with IRC Ghana a series of best practice stories on meeting the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) challenges for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). The stories were collected in three districts namely, Asutifi North, Bongo and Wassa East.

For more information see the overview page.

USAID Transform WASH – Learning notes overview

October 19th 2020 at 11:27

This is an overview of learning notes produced for the USAID Transform WASH project.

Making a toilet slab in Ethiopia

USAID Transform WASH aims to improve water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) outcomes in Ethiopia by increasing market access to and sustained use of a broader spectrum of affordable WASH products and services, with a substantial focus on sanitation.

Transform WASH achieves this by transforming the market for low-cost quality WASH products and services: stimulating demand at the community level, strengthening supply chains, and improving the enabling environment for a vibrant private market.

USAID Transform WASH is a USAID-funded activity implemented by PSI in collaboration with SNV, Plan International, and IRC WASH. The consortium is working closely with government agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Electricity, the One WASH National Program, and regional and sub-regional governments.

A number of publications have been written to document the lessons learnt.

Learning notes by theme

Strengthening supply chain:

Supply chain is about designing and introducing desirable and affordable sanitation products and services. The following learning notes have been published on this topic:

Stimulating demand:

If there is no demand, there is no selling, no matter how many sanitation products and services are available. The following document goes into this:

Improving the enabling environment:

There needs to be a focus on improving the regulatory and institutional framework of the business climate.


An assessment of sanitation financing options for enterprises and households

October 16th 2020 at 07:13

This learning note summarizes the findings of a study undertaken of the financing approaches used under the USAID Transform WASH activity, which was conducted to better understand their performance and how they compared to other viable approaches.

She Makes Change - an update

October 19th 2020 at 09:09

COVID-19 has forced the women in Odisha to postpone the workshops that IRC raised funds for during the 'She Makes Change' campaign.

Women have more acute needs due to cultural and biological roles, and a lack of services is often at the cost of their health, education, employment and participation in politics and society. Therefore, it is important that women have a say in WASH decision making. On the occasion of International Women's Day on March 8th 2020, IRC raised funds for women to ensure their voices were heard.

The ‘She Makes Change’ campaign successfully raised €2,868.25 for capacity building of women in the state of Odisha in India. The funds will be used to organise a series of workshops to provide foundational knowledge and skills to women in Ganjam district of Odisha, to enable them to assert their rights as citizens and participate in local government decision making.

Originally scheduled to be held in the months of June and July 2020, these workshops have not yet been organised due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of corona cases in India has been on the rise since early this year. At 7,307,097, India is currently the country with the second highest number of COVID-19 cases in the world. However, in terms of number of daily cases, it has the highest in the world (on 15 October).

The strict lockdown enforced by the Government of India in March 2020 gave rise to a wave of reverse migration. A significant proportion of the working age population in Ganjam works as migrants in the textile mills of Surat in the state of Gujarat. With the closure of the mills, high rate of infection, loss of employment and poor living conditions in the industrial town, the migrants returned to Ganjam. It is estimated that over a million migrants returned to the district in the pandemic.

The return of the migrants to Ganjam has led to a massive surge in corona cases in the state of Odisha, making Ganjam the non-capital hot spot in July, with a peak of over 700 cases in a day. To date, the district has recorded over 20,000 cases, with 29 confirmed cases in the last 24 hours at the time of writing. The return of the migrants has increased stress on the limited health infrastructure in the district as well as on the resources.

Considering these conditions, the leadership workshops have been postponed to next year. It must be added here that, the pandemic has also reinforced the need for skill training. Handwashing with soap is one of the easiest precautions against the spread of infectious diseases such as COVID -19. Access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene services is thus essential. Therefore, it becomes all the more critical to strengthen the capacities of women and other marginalised sections of the population to effectively plan, make decisions, reach out to and  hold duty bearers and service providers accountable, where required, to ensure services for all.

The significance of these skills goes beyond the realm of WASH. They empower women to access more opportunities, enable them to demand for themselves as well as for other marginalised populations. We know that such skills have the power to bring about transformative change.

How to help

If you would like to help support this project, or any others, you can make a donation here. Alternatively, contact us for other ways to support the women and marginalised populations in Ganjam and beyond.

The impact of Watershed on decentralised decision making with inclusion of women: Findings from India

October 14th 2020 at 10:29

Water and sanitation interventions should put special focus on strengthening systems of community participation as well as enabling the participation of all citizens.

The Watershed programme has provided the much-required entry point for the CSOs at large, and for women, specifically, into the basics of the planning for and management of water and sanitation. It has facilitated women's participation in community proceedings as well as created several opportunities for them to voice their needs and concerns in front of elected representatives and officials of line departments. Being able to engage has made women interested and active and has enabled them to articulate and put forth their demands. Such interventions are essential to ensure vibrant, representative, and accountable local governments.

Health, safety and social security challenges of sanitation workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in India

October 12th 2020 at 16:37

A rapid study on the challenges facing sanitation workers in Indian cities and towns during the COVID-19 pandemic.

While sanitation workers already face several health and safety risks, financial challenges and stigma due to the nature of their work and caste-based discrimination, the COVID-19 pandemic has further added to their challenges and vulnerabilities. The Urban Management Centre and WaterAid India jointly conducted a rapid assessment to understand the health, safety and social security challenges faced by sanitation workers in cities/towns across India during the COVID-19 pandemic. This involved telephonic and face-to-face interviews of 95 sanitation workers and 12 urban local body (ULB) officials from 18 cities/towns across 9 States/Union Territories (UTs) of India, conducted between 26 May and 8 June 2020. In addition, a secondary review of government guidelines and advisories, and media reports was undertaken.

Nine different categories of sanitation work were covered: domestic waste collection, street sweeping, cleaning at hospitals/quarantine centres, desludging of sewers/septic tanks and faecal sludge treatment plant (FSTP) operations, drain cleaning, cleaning of community/public/institutional toilets, waste/ rag picking, waste collection at hospitals/quarantine centres, and dry latrine cleaning.

This report presents findings on the awareness of COVID-19 preventive measures; use of personal protective equipment; hand hygiene practices; medical examination/ testing: impact on working conditions; livelihood and financial implications; insurance coverage; additional challenges faced by female sanitation workers; and COVID-19 related support measures by various agencies. Key recommendations are provided for immediate health and safety measures in the COVID-19 context; social and financial protection measure; and long-term systemic measures.

Inclusion of innovative technology in integrated waste management of a city : case of Bogura, Bangladesh

September 29th 2020 at 13:46

A waste-to-energy solution for the co-treatment of faecal sludge, municipal solid waste and agri-waste in combination with aerosol can recycling.

Bogura is the largest municipality in Bangladesh by population. Its huge population and agri-industry produces a great deal of solid, faecal and industrial waste which has been a matter of concern for the municipality. IRC started working for a solution and completed a pre-feasibility and feasibility study to find innovative technologies and an operation model. The feasibility study has produced an integrated solution of faecal sludge, municipal solid waste, agri-waste and aerosol can recycling model which also helps to reduce surface and ground water contamination. The solution integrates conventional anaerobic digestion with new torrefaction and aerosol-propellant capture technologies which treats the municipal solid waste and aerosol cans to produce biofuel and liquid petroleum gas, respectively.

Good practice for WASH in Wassa East District, Ghana

September 29th 2020 at 12:39

Video on good water and sanitation practices in Wassa East District documented by NDPC and IRC Ghana.

In 2016, Wassa East District in Ghana had roughly 56% coverage which was a concern. The district faced a water crisis, 6 in 10 water facilities were not functioning properly and payment systems had largely broken down. The District Assembly launched a Sustainable WASH for All programme and looked for partners to help them as their financial status was problematic.

With the help of the private sector and the third sector i.e. NGOs and social enterprises such as Access Development, the District Assembly was able to start improving the water services. Access Development provides Numa purified water to communities signed up to the pay-as-you-fetch model. People are willing to pay for safe water that is available in convenient spots. With the help of the Community Water and Sanitation Agency, a community-led total sanitation was launched in 15 communities.

This video tells the story of good WASH practices in Wassa East and shows that WASH is very important to the development of the district. It is part of a series of best practice stories on meeting the Sustainable Development Goal challenges for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in three selected districts in Ghana. The stories were documented by the National Development Planning Commission (NDPC) together with IRC Ghana.

Go back to overview page


Quatre ans après, Aboubakar Hema a-t-il tenu ses promesses ?

September 28th 2020 at 15:06

Interrogation l'édile de Banfora sur ses actions dans le secteur de l'eau et assainissement.

Après quatre années passées à la tête de la commune de Banfora, le maire, Aboubakar Hema, s’est prêté à l’exercice de l’Association des Blogueurs du Burkina (ABB) pour faire son bilan de mise en œuvre. C’était le samedi 12 septembre 2020, dans la salle de réunion du gouvernorat des Cascades. L’activité a connu une participation massive des acteurs de la dite commune, qui n’ont pas manqué d’exprimer leurs préoccupations en ce qui concerne le niveau de la réalisation de l’ODD N°6 à l’horizon 2030.

C’est au milieu de ses concitadins que le maire a présenté son bilan (Ph Com mairie)

C'est au milieu de ses concitadins que le maire a présenté son bilan (Ph Com mairie)

Plan Stratégique d'Approvisionnement en Eau Potable et d'Assainissement

Dès sa prise de fonction en 2016, le conseil municipal de Banfora a défini trois axes stratégiques de développement. Il s'agit notamment de la promotion de la bonne gouvernance, du développement de l'économie locale et de l'amélioration de l'accès de la population aux services sociaux de base. Lors de la présentation de son bilan, quatre ans après, le maire s’est logiquement appesanti sur ces trois piliers pour mettre en exergue des actions et réalisations qui font la fierté de la Cité du paysan noir. Le dernier axe qui prend en compte l’accès à l’eau et à l’assainissement, représente, selon le maire, une priorité pour la commune. La préoccupation permanente du premier citoyen de Banfora, étant de procurer aux communautés de la commune qu’il dirige, l'accès constant à une eau salubre et propre ainsi qu’à un assainissement durable, afin d’améliorer leur bien-être général.

«L’accès à l’eau  potable demeure une préoccupation dans la commune de Banfora. L’hygiène et l’assainissement aussi. Beaucoup de ménages n’ont pas de latrines. Certains font leurs besoins dans la nature. Ces cacas se retrouvent plus tard dans les eaux, ce qui peut provoquer beaucoup de maladies.» Des mots bien choisis par le maire de Banfora, Aboubakar Hema, pour traduire l’intérêt que la commune accorde au secteur de l’eau et assainissement, et mettre l’accent sur l’urgence qu’il représente. Du reste, la commune de Banfora a élaboré son Plan Stratégique d'Approvisionnement en Eau Potable et d'Assainissement (PSC AEPA), avec l’appui de l'IRC qui, pour la mise en œuvre, a réuni tous les partenaires interagissant pour la même cause ; partenaires sans lesquels, la réalisation de cet ambitieux projet serait une vue de l’esprit.

Avalanche de questions

La présentation de ce bilan constituait donc une bonne tribune pour interroger l’édile de Banfora sur ses actions dans le secteur de l’eau et assainissement et principalement dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre de ce Plan. A cet effet, le maire a été soumis à une avalanche de questions, allant des actions concrètes de la mairie dans la mise en œuvre du PSC AEPA durant la période écoulée, à la concordance ou non des types d’ouvrages d’accès à l’eau potable réalisés avec la vision et les engagements de la mairie, en passant par l’implication ou non des forces vives dans la mise en œuvre du Plan et les avancées concrètes de ces actions par rapport à la réalisation de l’ODD 6 dans la commune.

Mayor A. Hema

Aboubakar Hema a rendu compte de ses actions à sa population (Ph Com mairie)

Des ouvrages

Abordant ces aspects, le maire a affirmé que la commune a réalisé comme actions, dans ce sens, plus de 45 forages avec une prévision de plus d'une trentaine en 2020, réhabilité plus de 200 forages en panne, construit 472 latrines, 326 puisards douche et 17 puisards bac en 2019. A ces ouvrages, s’ajoutent 115 latrines réalisées de janvier 2020 à mai 2020 et 30 nouvelles pompes à motricité humaines (PMH) en cours de réalisation. M. Hema a complété la liste avec le démarrage de l’élaboration de la stratégie de communication, pour la mobilisation des partenaires et des fonds pour la mise en œuvre du PSC AEPA. Selon lui, cette action épouse parfaitement la volonté de la commune à travailler en étroite collaboration avec tous les partenaires et forces vives de la commune.

Le problème d'eau

Cependant, plusieurs difficultés ont été soulevées, au titre desquelles, le manque d’eau au secteur 8 de la ville de Banfora, à cause des travaux du 11-Décembre, la fête nationale, dont la commune accueille, cette année, la commémoration tournante. Dans cette partie de la commune, les populations souffrent le martyr, à la recherche de « l’or bleu ». Le maire, au nom du conseil municipal, a rassuré ses concitadins : « Ce n’est pas la faute de la mairie, ce problème d’eau. Nous plaidons donc auprès des autorités en charge de la question eau, (direction régionale de l’eau, Onea), pour qu’elles soulagent les populations de cette souffrance. » Le maire, promet, par ailleurs, la réalisation de 100 forages en 2021, dont 70 seront destinés aux ménages. Un atelier de forage a déjà été acquis sur fonds de la mairie.

Le chemin reste encore bien long

De façon globale, le constat est flagrant, que les réalisations concernant les ouvrages d’accès à l’eau potable, se limitent aux forages équipés de pompe à motricité humaine. Ces ouvrages ne garantissent pas l’accès à une eau sûre, car, pouvant être contaminée plus rapidement avant la consommation, et n’éliminent pas non plus la corvée d’eau.  Ces situations sont donc en contradiction totale avec les engagements pris par la commune, selon lesquels 80% de la population consommerait de l’eau sûre, soit par robinet à la maison, soit à la borne fontaine.  Il est donc évident que le chemin reste encore bien long, pour parvenir au mieux-être des populations, en matière d’eau et d’assainissement. Mais, assurant les uns et les autres que son engagement et sa détermination pour que l’eau et l’assainissement soient inscrits en lettres d’or dans son programme demeurent intacts, le maire de Banfora a lancé un cri du cœur à l’endroit des acteurs du secteur, pour une collaboration efficace en vue de l’atteinte de ses objectifs. Parallèlement, IRC, à travers son assistance technique avec l’appui financier de la Fondation Hilton, continuera aux côtés de la mairie, le combat pour que cet engagement soit effectif.

User's guide for the District Capacity Assessment Tool

September 24th 2020 at 11:50

Guideline for the District Capacity Assessment Tool, a tool developed to evaluate if a given institution has the required resources (financial and human) and if the working environment is enabled to ensure sustainable water service delivery.

Ethiopia’s business environment and how it influences WASH market development

September 23rd 2020 at 07:51

An enabling business environment and strong private sector will not only help expand access to critical WASH products and services – but will also help Ethiopia to realize its open defecation free (ODF) goal and to achieve Growth and Transformation Plan II (GTP II) and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets.

This learning note focuses on identifying the basic challenges of the Ethiopian private sector business environment and highlights opportunities for growth and investment in the WASH sector. The learning note examines how access to foreign exchange currency, import of raw and finished goods, intellectual property protection and business start-up costs are affecting the WASH business environment. It concludes that an enabling business environment and strong private sector will not only help expand access to critical WASH products and services – but will also help Ethiopia to realize its open defecation free (ODF) goal and to achieve Growth and Transformation Plan II (GTP II )and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets.

Webinar report on health and safety challenges for sanitation workers during the COVID-19 pandemic

September 22nd 2020 at 07:46

WaterAid India (WAI) and Urban Management Centre (UMC) jointly conducted a rapid assessment to understand the health, safety and livelihood challenges faced by sanitation workers in India during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study findings have helped highlight specific challenges, bringing out critical insights for immediate measures in the pandemic context, as well as long term systemic measures for ensuring their health, improved working conditions and dignified livelihoods. On 30 June 2020, both organisations held a webinar on the topic which was attended by 170 participants.

A SWA briefing note on climate change adaptation and mitigation

August 24th 2020 at 17:07

Adapting to climate change and fostering a low carbon water and sanitation sector.

SWA Briefing Series

As the world grapples with COVID-19 pandemic, it has become increasingly clear that the provision of safe water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) is essential to protect human health during all infectious disease outbreaks. While, the focus is currently on fighting the pandemic, building momentum on an interconnected issue of climate change has to stay high on the agenda.  

The Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) global multi-stakeholder partnership exists to mobilise its partners to better work together to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SWA partners can play a key role in supporting the bridging of SDG 6 (on water and sanitation) and SDG 13 (on climate action), while recognising that the ability to meet these SDGs directly affects and is affected by almost all of the other SDGs, including poverty, food, gender and inequality, as examples.  

A briefing note addressing the issue of climate change has been prepared that explores how Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) partners can address the risks and challenges presented by climate change through adaptation and mitigation measures. The SWA Framework offers concrete suggestions on how SWA partners can integrate climate change considerations into their planning and actions at global, regional and national levels. The briefing note can be downloaded from the SWA website.